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The study of the structures that make up the human body and their relationship to each other...
The study of how the body parts work, or how the body functions...
The ability of the body to maintain itself with normal parameters through slight modifications...
The field of study that deals with problems encountered when the body is not in homeostasis...
How does the body maintian homeostasis?
- Negative Feedback Loops (NFL)
- *Note* The word negative means change in the opposite direction, not necessarily down or less
What are the 5 components or steps in a NFL?
- 1. Stimulus causes a change in a variable away from normal levels
- 2. Receptor detects the deviation away from normal
- 3. Information about the deviation is sent to a controle center via an input pathway
- 4. The controle center sends information out to an effector via and output pathway
- 5. The effector causes a response that returnes the value back to normal levels
If you blood presure was too high, which of these would represent and EFFECTOR in a negative feedback loop that restores normal blood presure?
A. pressure receptors inside your arteries
B. your brain
C. you ate really salty pizza for lunch
D. the kidneys increase the amount of blood plasma they filter out of the blood
- If you blood presure was too high, which of these would represent and
- EFFECTOR in a negative feedback loop that restores normal blood presure?
- A. pressure receptors inside your arteries
- B. your brain
- C. you ate really salty pizza for lunch
- D. the kidneys increase the amount of blood plasma they filter out of the blood
What are the levels of organization in the body?
- 1. Chemical
- 2. Cellular
- 3. Tissue
- 4. Organ
- 5. System
- 6. Organismal
What does the CHEMICAL level of organization consist of?
atoms, ions, and molecules
What does the CELLULAR level of organization consist of?
the body is made of trillions of cells, and they are the basic, fundamental unit of the body (we have more than 200 types of cells in our body)
What does the TISSUE level of organization consist of?
a variety of similar cell types combine to form one of four types of tissues with our bodies
What does the ORGAN level of organization consist of?
organs are dicrete structures composed of one or more tissue types (stomach, teeth, heart, liver, ect.). An organ is capable of performing comples functions
What does the SYSTEM level of organization consist of?
a group of related organs are grouped together into 11 different systems within the body - your book takes a systemic approach to A&P
What does the ORGANISMAL level of organization consist of?
the 11 systems work together to produce a single living organism that functions as a single unit
Standardized body position...
What is the correct body orientation?
Standing erect, feet slightly apart, arms at side (slightly out), palms out
Towards the dead end, the upper part of a stucture, or above...
Away from the head end, toward the lower part of a structure, or below...
Towards the front of the body, or in front of...
Toward the back of the body, or behind
Toward or at the midline of the body, on the inner side of...
Away from the midline of the body, on the outerside of...
In between a more medial and a more lateral structure...
Closer to the origin of the body part or closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk...
Further from the origin of the body part or further from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk...
Closer to or at the surface of the body...
Away from the body surface, more internal...
Plane that divides the body into front & back halves...
Plane that devides the body into sides (left/right)...
Saggital (a.k.a. midsaggital or median)
Plane that divides the body into top & bottom halves...
Which body cavity has two subdivisions?
Dorsal & Ventral
Which body cavity is found inside the skull (holds the brain)?
Which body cavity holds the spinal cord?
Vertebral (found in the vertebral column)
Which body cavity is found above the diaphram and holds organs such as the lungs, heart, ect.?
Which body cavity is found below the diaphram?
The collection of organs in the Abdominopelvic Cavity...
Anything that takes up space and has mass...
Matter (Everything in the universe is made of matter)
What are the 3 states of Matter?
Solid, Liquid, and Gas
Unique substances that cannot be changed or broken down by natural means...
Elements (one or more make up matter)
How many elements are known to exist?
How many elements are found in nature?
4 elements make up __% of our body mass.
How many elements are found in much smaller amounts?
What are the 4 common elements?
- O: Oygen
- H: Hydrogen
- C: Carbon
- N: Nitrogen
What are the 9 less common elements?
- Ca: Calcium
- S: Sulfur
- Mg: Magnesium
- P: Phophorus
- Na: Sodium
- I: Iodine
- K: Potassium
- Cl: Chlorine
- Fe: Iron
The basic (and the the smallest) unit of any element...
What component of an Atom carries a + charge?
What component of an Atom carries a 0 charge?