more pcol cards for exam 1

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ffloyd
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more pcol cards for exam 1
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2012-09-26 21:48:56
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ffloyd pharmacology exam ans pns cns
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ffloyd pharmacology exam ans pns cns
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  1. what is atropine?
    a direct-acting muscarinic antagonist
  2. what effect does ACh produce on the CNS?
    none ; ACh doesn't cross the BBB
  3. what is bathanechol?
    a direct-acting muscarinic agonist
  4. what is pilocarpine?
    a direct-acting muscarinic agonist
  5. name 3 important reversible indirect-acting cholinesterase inhibitors
    • physostigmine
    • neostigmine
    • pyridostigmine
  6. name 4 important direct-acting muscarinic agonists
    • ACh
    • bethanechol
    • pilocarpine
    • muscarine
  7. what are some adverse CNS effects seen with pilocarpine/muscarine
    • irritability
    • restlessness
    • ataxia
    • hallucinations
    • drowsiness/sedation
  8. what is the treatment for a parasympathomimetic overdose?
    give a muscarinic antagonist like atropine
  9. what are the peripheral effects of cholinesterase inhibitors?
    • Salivation
    • Lacrimation
    • Urination
    • Defication
    • GI pain
    • Emesis
    • Sweating -- (SLUDGES)
  10. T/F - physostigmine crosses the BBB
    true
  11. T/F -neostigmine crosses the BBB
    false
  12. What does pralidoxime (2-PAM) do?
    it complexes with organophosphates and removes it from cholinesterase - used to treat organophosphate poisoning
  13. what are 3 reversible cholinesterase inhibitors used in the treatment and diagnosis of Myasthenia gravis?
    • pyridostigmine(tx)
    • ambenonium(tx)
    • edrophonium(dx)
  14. what cholinesterase inhibitor is often used in the treatment of Alzheimer's?
    Donepezil(Aricept)
  15. what is malathion and what is it commonly used for?
    it is an organophosphate used as an insecticide
  16. what drug is a prophylaxis treatment for organophosphate exposure and how does it work?
    pyridostigmine ; ties up organophosphate binding sites on receptors
  17. what does Botulism toxin do?
    prevents the release of ACh
  18. what does Reglan(metoclopramide) do?
    promotes ACh release
  19. what chemical blocks uptake of choline and slows ACh synthesis
    hemicholinium
  20. What are the symptoms of belladonna poisoning?
    • delirium (mad as a hatter)
    • vasodilation (red as a beet)
    • cyclopegia/mydriasis (blind as a bat)
    • decr. sweat/ thermoregulation (hot as hell)
    • decr. secretions (dry as a bone)
  21. how do non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent work?
    they are competitive antagonists of ACh at the cholinergic receptors at the motor end plate of skeletal muscles
  22. what is the only depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent?
    succinylcholine
  23. how does succinylcholine work as a neuromuscular blocking agent?
    it produces persistent depolarization of the motor end plate
  24. T/F - succinylcholine can be antagonized  by cholinesterase inhibitors
    false - this will actually intensify the block
  25. what are some side effects of succinylcholine?
    • respiratory depression 
    • various CV effects due to parasymp and symp stimulation
  26. name the 2 indirect-acting sympathomimetics discussed in lab and explain their mechanism of action
    cocaine and tyramine ; block NE reuptake
  27. name 2 different drugs discussed in class as antidotes to organophosphate toxicity
    • pralidoxime - regenerates cholinesterase
    • atropine - protects against peripheral muscarinic effects
  28. what does inotropic mean?
    affecting the strength of contraction of heart muscle
  29. what does chronotropic mean?
    affecting the heart rate

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