Psych 101 Exam 1

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Psych 101 Exam 1
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2012-09-26 22:34:45
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Psych 101 Exam 1
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  1. Wilhelm Wundt
    first person to call himself a psychologist, opened first psych lab in Germany (Univ of Leipzig), called his approach STRUCTURALISM, examinations of structure of mind (components),  used experimental method and introspection—looking inward to report on experiences and how they related to one another
  2. William James
    American, influenced by Darwin, FUNCTIONALISM, interested in the adaptive functions served by behavior and thought, not a question of whether we smell or not, but what it does for us, more practical, also first classroom teacher of psychology (Darwinism- animals and humans have certain traits that are functional or not functional) interested in how the things we do allow us to get along in the world, what’s the function of a peacock having a huge tail
  3. John Watson
    Championed psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby.
  4. B.F. Skinner
    Behaviorist, he rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
  5. Sigmund Freud
    Behaviorist, he rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
  6. igmund Freud
    emphasized the ways emotional responses to childhood experiences and our unconscious thought processes affect our behavior, thus psychology till the 1920’s was defined as the “the science of mental life”
  7. Margaret Washburn
    first woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology, she synthesized animal behavior research.
  8. Behavioralism
    the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without references to mental processes.
  9. humanistic
    historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth.
  10. Psychodynamic
    how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts.  -*behavior and mental processes are largely determined by unconscious mental and emotional conflicts. Usually put instincts or desires for sex, aggression, security, and power against environmental obstacles to fulfillment of those desires, Names: Horney, Erikson, Freud (psychoanalytic)
  11. Hindsight bias
    The feeling that ‘I knew it all along’ and you feel confident after you hear the results, that you would have been able to foresee it.
  12. Overconfidence
    The feeling that ‘I knew it all along’ and you feel confident after you hear the results, that you would have been able to foresee it.
  13. Critical Thinking
    Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
  14. Correlation
    a measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together, and thus of how welleither factor predicts the other
  15. Correlation Coefficient
    a statistical index of the relationship between 2 things (from -1 to +1) - Grows stronger towards -1/+1
  16. Naturalistic Observation
    observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
  17. Operational definition
    statement of procedures (operations) used to define researchvariables, select research method, collect and analyze data, interpret and publish
  18. Experiment
    a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable)
  19. Random Assignment
    By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. Random assignment is the assigning of participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
  20. Control Group
    In an experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
  21. Independent Variable (IV)
    factor that is manipulated and variable whose effect is being studied.
  22. Dependent Variable (DV)
    The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response tothe manipulations of the independent variable
  23. Neuron
    a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
  24. Axon
    also known as a nerve fiber; conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron’s cellbody
  25. Dentrite
    Multiple, usually shorter fibers which receive signals from the axons of otherneurons, are cells “receivers”
  26. Myelin sheath
    a fatty substance that insulates the axon from other neurons, makes nerveconduction faster
  27. Terminal branches
    form junctions with other cells
  28. Terminal buttons
    area at the end of an axon fiber which holds inside of it small sacks calledsynaptic vesicles
  29. Cell body/Soma
    The largest part of a cell, the cell body holds all of the general parts of a cell as well asthe nucleus
  30. Vesicle
    air filled cavity or sac
  31. Neural impulse
    electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiber
  32. Threshold
    the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
  33. Action potential
    a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
  34. Synapse
    the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell bodyof the receiving neuron. The gap is the Synaptic Cleft/Gap
  35. Neurotransmitters
    chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps between neurons. Whenreleased by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind toreceptor sites on the receiving neuron, influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse.
  36. Reuptake
    a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron
  37. Agonists
    this molecule excites, mimics the neurotransmitter’s effects on the receiving neuron
  38. Antagonists
    molecule that inhibits
  39. EEG
    “electroencephalogram” - an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity thatsweep across the brain’s surface. Measures by electrodes placed on the scalp.
  40. PET
    “positron emission tomography” - a visual display of brain activity that detects where aradioactive form of glucose does while the brain performs a given task
  41. MRI
    “magnetic resonance imaging” - technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves toproduce computer-generated images of soft tissue. Can show brain anatomy.
  42. fMRI
    “functional magnetic resonance imaging” - technique for revealing blood flow and,therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. Shows brain function.
  43. Brainstem
    oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull.
  44. Medulla
    base of the brain stem that controls heartbeat and breathing
  45. Reticular formation
    a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role incontrolling arousal.
  46. Thalamus
    the brain’s sensory switchboard, directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortexand transmits replies the cerebellum and medulla
  47. Cerebellum
    the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem. Helps coordinate voluntarymovements and balance.
  48. Limbic system
    A doughnut shaped system of neural structures at border of brainstem andcerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression, and drives for food and sex.Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
  49. Amygdala
    consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear/anger.
  50. Hypothalamus
    lies below the thalamus and directs several maintenance activities like eating,drinking, body temperature, and control of the emotions. Helps govern the endocrine systemvia the pituitary gland.
  51. Frontal lobes
    portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved inspeaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
  52. Parietal lobes
    portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear;receives sensory input for touch and body position
  53. Temporal lobes
    portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes theauditory areas; each receiving information from the opposite ear
  54. Occipital lobes
    portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas thatreceive information from the visual fields.
  55. Motor cortex
    an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
  56. Sensory cortex
    area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touchand movement sensations
  57. Association areas
    areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor orsensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning,remembering, thinking, and speaking
  58. Corpus callosum
    the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres andcarrying messages between them
  59. Split-brain
    a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres bycutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
  60. Neural plasticity
    the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizingafter damage or by building new pathways based on experience
  61. Neurosurgery
    The medical specialty concerned with prevention, diagnosis, treatment andrehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain,spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
  62. Dual processing
    the principal that information is often simultaneously processed on separateconscious and unconscious tracks.
  63. Selective attention
    the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
  64. Inattentional blindness
    failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
  65. Circadian rhythm
    Our “biological clock”, it can be altered by artificial light; occur on a 24-hourcycle and include sleep and wakefulness.
  66. REM sleep
    rapid eye movement sleep, recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreamscommonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed (except ofminor twitches) but other body systems are active.
  67. Stages of sleep (1, 2, 3, 4)
    stage 1-2: During early, light sleep the brain enters a lowamplitude,regular wave form called theta waves (5-8cps). A person who is daydreaming showstheta activity. stage 3-4: During deepest sleep, brain activity slows down. There are largeamplitude,slow delta waves (1.5-4cps). High and low waves.
  68. Alpha waves
    the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
  69. Delta waves
    The brain emits large, slow delta waves first, in stage three, then four. brainwaves associated with deep sleep
  70. Hallucinations
    false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of internalvisual stimulus
  71. Narcolepsy
    Overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up
  72. Sleep apnea
    Failure to breathe when asleep
  73. Night terrors
    The sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiologicalreactions (e.g., rapid heart rates, perspiration) which occur during Stage 4 sleep
  74. Perception
    the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us torecognize meaningful objects and events.
  75. dream
    a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’smind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities and incongruitites,and for the dreamers delusional acceptance of the content and the later difficulties ofremembering it.
  76. Hypnosis
    a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (thesubject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
  77. Posthypnotic suggestion-
    A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried outafter the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesiredsymptoms and behaviors.
  78. Psychoactive drug-
    a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.
  79. Tolerance
    the diminishing effect with regular use of the same drug, requiring the user to takelarger and larger doses before experiencing the drugs effect.
  80. Withdrawal
    the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
  81. Physiological Dependence
    a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawalsymptoms when the drug is discontinued.
  82. Psychological Dependence
    a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negativeemotions.
  83. Barbiturates
    drugs that depress the activity of the CNS, reducing anxiety but impairingmemory and judgement
  84. Opiates
    opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity,temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
  85. Methamphetamines
    a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the CNS, with speededup body functions and associated energy and mood changes over time, appears to reducebaseline dopamine levels
  86. Bottom-up processing
    analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to thebrain’s integration of sensory information. 
  87. Top-down processing
    information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, aswhen we construct perceptions on our experiences and expectations.
  88. Wavelength
    the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radiotransmission.
  89. Hue
    (color) determined by the wavelength
  90. Intensity
    experience of brightness, the amount of light hitting your eye
  91. Pupil
    controls the amount of light entering the eye
  92. Iris
    muscle that expands and contracts to change the size of the opening (pupil) for light
  93. Lens
    focuses the light rays on the retina
  94. Retina
    contains sensory receptors that process visual information and sends it to the brain
  95. Accommodation
    the process by which the eye’s lens change shape to focus near or farobjects on the retina.
  96. Rods
    rhodopsin, black and white vision; detail is elusive; receptors mostly found in peripheryof retina; extremely sensitive to light and responsible for our ability to see in low levels ofilluminationC
  97. ones
    Iodopsin, color vision; able to see more detailed images; found primarily in center ofthe retina in the fovea; three types of cones allow us to see different colors
  98. Optic nerve
    the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
  99. Blind spot
    can’t see anything if light falls on it, but brain fills in the gap; all of the axons fromthe specialized neurons must exit eye and go out towards brain and come together to form opticnerve which extends out to the visual cortex of the brain
  100. Fovea
    when we focus on something in high levels of light, this is where the light should befocused most (contains most of the cones)
  101. Feature detectors
    nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus,such as shape, angle or movement.
  102. Parallel processing
    processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’snatural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts withstep by step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
  103. Trichromatic theory
    Three different types of cones, each most sensitive to a differentwavelength of light (red, green and blue spectrums); color experienced in a given area has todo with the number, types and frequency of cones firing in an area of the fovea
  104. Frequency
    the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (ex: persecond).
  105. Pitch
    a tone’s experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
  106. Middle ear
    the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones(hammer, anvil and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’soval window.
  107. Cochlea
    a coiled, bony fluid filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves triggernerve impulses.
  108. Inner ear
    the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, andvestibular sacs.
  109. Perceptual organization
    ability to see, hear or become aware of something through thesenses
  110. Gestalt
     an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integratepieces of information into meaningful wholes.
  111. Proximity 
     we group similar figures together-We see three sets of two lines, not six separatelines.
  112. Continuity
    flow, progression.
  113. Closure
    we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object.
  114. Depth perception
    the ability of an observer to judge the spatial relationships of objects,especially their relative distance from the observer and from one another.
  115. Binocular cues
    cues that require 2 working eyes to determine placement of objects-Retinal disparity- images from the 2 eyes differ. Try looking at your 2 index fingers whenpointing then towards each other half an inch apart and about 5 inches directly in front of youreyes. You will see a finger sausage as shown in the inset.-Neural convergence- the closer an object is to your eyes, the more you have to cross youreyes to focus on it. Brain reads or interprets the degree to which the muscles of your eyes areturning in, and can interpret how close or far away something is
  116. Monocular cues
    aka Pictoral CuesAllow us to use one eye to appx depthAlso allow us to give illusion of depth in pictures/2-D artRelative size: if 2 objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinalimage to be farther awayInterposition- objects that occlude (block) other objects tend to be perceived as closerRelative Height- we perceive objects that are higher in our field of vision to be farther awaythan those that are lowerLinear Perspective- parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge in the distance.The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance

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