Physio Chapter 3

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Anonymous
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Physio Chapter 3
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2012-09-26 22:00:05
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Structure of the Nervous System
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  1. Imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the fron of the brain
    Neuraxis
  2. Near or towar the head
    Anterior
  3. Near or toward the tail.
    Posterior
  4. Along the neuraxis toward the front of the face
    Rostral
  5. Along the neuraxis away from the front of the face
    Caudal
  6. Toward the back, perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the top of the head or back
    Dorsal
  7. Toward the belly, perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the bottom of the skull or the front surface of the body
    Ventral
  8. Toward the side of the body
    Lateral
  9. Toward the neuraxis
    Medial
  10. Located on the same side of the body
    Ipsilateral
  11. Located on the opposite side of the body
    Contralateral
  12. Cross sections, right right angles to the neuraxis.
    Transverse
  13. Parallel to the ground
    Horizontal
  14. Parallel to the neuraxis and perpendicular to the ground
    Sagittal
  15. Tough connective tissue that covers the CNS. Protective sheaths around the NS. There are three layers.
    Meninges
  16. The outer layer of the meninges, tough thick and flexible. It is unstretchable.
    Dura mater
  17. Middle layer of the meninges. Soft, spongy, web-like layer.
    Arachnoid membrane
  18. Filled with cerebrospinal fluid that is produced by the choroid plexus.
    Subarachnoid space
  19. Inner layer of the meninges. Close to the brain and the spinal cord.
    Pia mater
  20. The PNS has what kind of meninges?
    Dura mater and pia mater. 
  21. Brain contains hollow, connected chambers that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. What are they called?
    Ventricles
  22. The largest ventricles, also called the 1st and 2nd ventricles.
    Lateral ventricles
  23. The ventricle that is the midline of the brain. It is rich in choroid plexus. Becomes a landmark for finding the thalmus. Also a major producer of cerebrospinal fluid.
    3rd ventricle
  24. This connects the 3rd and 4th ventricle
    Cerebral aqueduct
  25. Receives visual information, calcarine fissure.
    Primary visual cortex
  26. Receives auditory information, a lateral fissure.
    Primary auditory cortex
  27. Receives body senses, central sulcus.
    Primary somatosensory cortex
  28. Information processor for primary sensory cortex, perception, memory.
    Sensory association cortex
  29. Processes movements
    Motor association cortex
  30. Involved in formulating plans and strategies
    Prefrontal cortex
  31. Deep grooves found on the surface of the brain. The deepest grooves
    Fissure
  32. Shallower grooves on the brain.
    Sulcus
  33. This groove divides the somatosensory cortex from the motor cortex.
    Central sulcus
  34. Bumps on the brain
    Gyrus
  35. Lobe in front of the central sulcus. Cognition and memory. 
    Frontal lobe
  36. Area in the brain the has the ability to concentrate and attend, elaboration of thought. Judgment, inhibition. Personality and emotional traits.
    Prefrontal area
  37. Lobe posterior to the central sulcus. Processing of sensory input, sensory discrimination, body orientation, and primary secondary somatic area.
    Parietal
  38. Lobe ventral to lateral fissure. Auditory receptive area and association areas, expressed behaviors, language and memory.
    Temporal
  39. Lobe at the back of the brain. Used for vision.
    Occipital
  40. Includes the cingulate gyrus and corpus collosum.
    Limbic cortex
  41. Part of the limbic system involved with learning and memory
    Hippocampus
  42. Part of the limbic system specific to emotion and memory
    Amygdala
  43. Part of the limbic system that connects axons from the hippocampus to other regions of the brain.
    Fornix
  44. Part of the limbix system that contains parts of the hypothalmus
    Mammilary bodies
  45. Nuclei, deep in the brain, beneath the lateral ventricles. Comprised of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and the global pallidus.
    Basal ganglia
  46. This is involved in smoothing out movement via input from the primary and secondary motor cortex of the somatosensory cortex.
    Basal ganglia
  47. Part of the diencephalon that has 2 lobes connected through the 3rd ventricle via massa intermedic. It is divided into several (nodes?) interonnectin different regions of the brain.
    Thalmus
  48. Areas where we find the dense body of somas interconnecting with dendrites and axons synapsing onto these.
    Nuclei
  49. Part of the thalmus, used for vision. 
    Lateral geniculate nucleus
  50. Part of the thalmus that deals with auditory
    Medial geniculate nucleus
  51. The gatekeeper for sympathetic nervous system. The Controls autonomic nervous system and endocrine system
    Hypothalmus
  52. This part of the Diencephalon organizes behavior related to survival, such as food, fluid, mating and instinctual behaviors.
    Hypothalmus
  53. The master gland of the endocrine system that controls functions of other glands.
    Pituitory gland
  54. Section of the pituitary gland that has the growth hormone, prolactin, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH
    Anterior lobe
  55. Section of the pituitary gland that has endorphine, malanocyte, stimulating hormone
    Intermediate lobe
  56. Section of the pituitary gland that has ADH, oxytocin
    Posterior lobe
  57. Most hormones are secreted by what?
    Pituitary gland
  58. This plays an important role in standing, walking, coordinated movements. It receives information from the visual, auditory, and motor systems. Involved in cognitive functions such as attention and language.
    Cerebellum
  59. This is associated with the auditory system -- balance.
    Vestibular system
  60. Contains nuclei that relay signals from the cerebrum to cerebellum, along with nuclei that deal with sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expression, sensation, and posture.
    Pons
  61. Contains the cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers and deals with autonomic functions like breathing and blood pressure.
    Medula oblongata
  62. Part of the CNS. Motor axons to organs and somatosensory info to the brain. Protexted by the vertebrae.
    Spinal cord
  63. Spinal root that contains info afferent sensory axons.
    Dorsal root
  64. A cluster of sensory neuron somas
    Dorsal root
  65. Spinal root that contains outgoing (efferent) motor axons
    Dorsal root
  66. Nerves from the brain to the head and neck. 
    Cranial nerves
  67. Central to the moement of skeletal muscles and convey sensory infor to CNS
    Somatic NS
  68. Controls body functions, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, glands. Tibetan monks can control it with practice.
    Autonomic NS
  69. Subdivision of the autonomic nervous system with the fight or flight response.
    Sympathetic nervous system
  70. subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that deals with resting and digesting.
    Para sympathetic NS

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