MICRO EXAM 1

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acoxy1
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173764
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MICRO EXAM 1
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2012-09-27 23:51:36
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Microbiology
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Exam 1 material
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  1. What is microbiology?
    the study of organisms and agents too small to be seen clearly by the unaided eye
  2. The first person to observe and describe microorganisms
    Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) 

    @ 50 - 300 times magnification
  3. Microscope use by Robert Hooke
    description of fruity structures of molds (1664)
  4. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) 
    Sterility --- Swan neck flasks
  5. Fannie Eilshemius (1850-1934) and Walter Hesse
    Discovered AGAR
  6. Round cells = 

    Rod cells=

    Spirals
    Round = Coccus

    Rods = Bacillus

    Spirals = Spirochetes
  7. Actinomycetes:
    Mass of branching chains of rod-shaped cells (antibiotic producers)
  8. Berkeley (1845)
    Microorganisms and plant disease
  9. Robert Koch (1843-1910) 
    Role of bacteria  (Bacillus anthracis) in ANTHRAX
  10. Behring (1845-1917) and Kitasato (1852-1931
    anti-toxins i.e. tetanus antitoxin
  11. Elie Metchnikoff (1845-1916) 
    phagocytes
  12. FERMENTATION 
    Pasteur       sugars -->   ethanol
  13. Charcteristics of Microorganisms
    • 1. Self-feeding - open system, uptake nutrients from surroundings
    • 2. Self replication -- All cellsa rise form pre existing
    • 3. Differentitation
    • 4. Chemical signaling
    • 5. Evolution
  14. What determines the function of a molecule?
    The SHAPE
  15. Functional Groups
    Hydroxyl (OH) , Carbonyl (C=O--), Amino (NHH), Carboxyl (C-O-OH)

    Can have more than one functional group
  16. Most common disaccharide in diet 
    •                                 SUGAR
    •                                 sucrose
    •                         fructose + glucose
  17. Monosachharides = monomers
    Polysachharides = polymer
    Carbohydrates are hydrophilic
    Lipds are hydrophobic
  18. SATURATED FATS vs UNSATURDATED FATS
    SATURATD = MAXIMUM # of H bonds

    UNSATURATED = Less than maximum (double bond..bent)
  19. Monomers of protein?
    • Monomer = Amino Acids
    • Polymer = a protein
  20. Protein Structures
    • Primary - amino acid chain
    • Secondary - Alpha helix, beta pleaded sheets
    • Tertiary - Polypeptide intial folding
    • Quarternary- Complete protein with 4 subunits
  21. Monomers of DNA


    Polymers of DNA
    • Monomers= Nucleotides
    • Polymers = Nucleic Acids
    •  A  - Adenine     (with T)
    • G  - Guanine       ( with C)
    • T  - Thymine
    • C  - Cytosine
  22. What does a lense do?
    Focus the refracted light rays at a specific point --- focal point

    Short focal length = more power
  23. The Bright-Field Microscope
    produces a dark image against a brighter background
  24. The Dark-Field Microscope 
    image is formed by light reflected or refracted by specimen • produces a bright image of the object against a dark background
  25. The Differential Interference Contrast Microscope (DIC)
    creates image by detecting differences in refractive indices and thickness of different parts of specimen..appear 3dish
  26. Fixation 
    • • preserves internal and external structures and fixes them in position
    • • organisms usually killed and firmly attached to microscope slide
    • – heat fixation – routine use with bacteria and archaea
    • • preserves overall morphology but not internal structures
    • – chemical fixation – used with larger, more delicate organisms
    • • protects fine cellular substructure and morphology
  27. Dyes
    • ionizable dyes have charged groups
    • – basic dyes have positive charges
    • – acid dyes have negative charges
  28. Differential Staining
    divides microorganisms into groups based on their staining properties

    --differential stain used to detect presence or absence of structures – endospores, flagella, capsules
  29. Gram Staining (Most common differentially staining procedure)
    • divides bacteria into two groups,
    • Gram positive (remain purple)
    • and
    • Gram negative (pink, red)

    based on differences in cell wall structure
  30. Scanning Probe Microscopy
        ----atomic force microscope
    sharp probe moves over surface of specimen at constant distance
  31. flagellum distribution
    • Monotrichous one flagellum
    • Amphitrichous two, one at each pole
    • Lophotrichous 2 flagelum clusters, one at each pole
    • Peritrichous evenly spread over the surface
  32. Rotation of flagellum is driven by what?
    Proton or sodium gradients
  33. What is chemotaxis?
    Movement towards or away from chemicals (chemoreceptors)
  34. What is in the interior or prokaryotic cells?
    • •Inclusion bodies
    • and gas vesicles (aid in floating)

    •ribosomes

    •nucleoid (DNA)
  35. Ribosomes are involved in....
    The synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasmic matrix

    Prokaryotic are smaller than eukaryotic
  36. An Overview of Eucaryotic Cell Structure
    • • membrane-delimited nuclei
    • • membrane-bound organelles that perform specific functions
    • • more structurally complex than procaryotic cell
    • • generally larger than procaryotic cell
  37. Filaments that form the cytoskeleton
    microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments

    plays role in both cell shape and cell movement
  38. Microfilaments
    • composed of actin protein
    • • involved in cell motion and shape changes
  39. Microtubules
    • tubuline
    • • help maintain cell shape
    • • involved with microfilaments in cell movements
    • • participate in intracellular transport processes
  40. The Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • rough ER – ribosomes attached – synthesis of secreted proteins by ERassociated ribosomes
    • • smooth ER – devoid of ribosomes – synthesis of lipids by ER-associated enzymes

    • Functions:
    • • transports proteins, lipids, and other materials within cell
    • • major site of cell membrane synthesis
    • • synthesis of lysosomes
  41. Golgi Apparatus
    • • membranous organelle made of cisternae stacked on each other
    • • dictyosomes – stacks of cisternae
    • • involved in modification, packaging, and secretion of materials
  42. Movement thru golgi
    ER --> cis golgi --> trans golgi -->Membrane
  43. Lysosomes
    • • membrane-bound vesicles found in most eucaryotes
    • • involved in intracellular digestion
    • • contain hydrolases, enzymes which hydrolyze molecules and function best under slightly acidic conditions
    • • maintain an acidic environment by pumping protons into their interior
  44. quality assurance mechanism
    – Unfolded or misfolded proteins are secreted into cytosol, targeted for destruction by ubiquitin polypeptides.

    proteasomes destroy targeted proteins
  45. Mitochondria
    • site where ATP is generated by electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
  46. nucleolus/nucleus
    – directs synthesis and processing of rRNA

    – directs assembly of rRNA and ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes
  47. mitosis 
    • – one component of cell cycle
    • – distributes DNA to 2 new nuclei
    • – ploidy (number of chromosomes) of progeny cells is the same as the parent
    • • thus, after mitosis, a diploid organism remains diploid
  48. meiosis 
    • – complex, twostage process of nuclear division
    • – number of chromosomes in the resulting progeny cells is reduced by !diploid haploid
  49. cell wall
    • • algae – cellulose and pectin
    • • diatoms – silica
    • • fungi – chitin, cellulose, and glucan
  50. axoneme
    – set of microtubules in a 9 + 2 arrangement 
  51. basal body 
    • – at base of flagellum or cilium
    • – directs synthesis of flagella and cilia
  52. The molecular unity of procaryotes and eucaryotes
    • • basic chemical composition
    • • genetic code
    • • basic metabolic processes

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