Prokaryotic cell structure, growth

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Prokaryotic cell structure, growth
2012-10-03 20:08:45

exam 1
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  1. What type of cell lacks a nucleus?
  2. What type of cell has a nucleus?
  3. The type of cell that has circular chromosome, not a membrane?
  4. There are no histones in this cell
  5. There are no organelles in this cell
  6. A peptidoglycan cell wall is found in this cell if its bacteria
  7. Pseudomurein cell walls if found in an archea what cell
  8. this cell has a bisnary fission and has ribosomes
  9. This cell has paired chromosomes in the nuclear membrane
  10. This cell has histones
  11. This cell has organelles
  12. This cell has a polysaccharide cell wall
  13. This cell has a mitotic spindle
  14. This surrounds the cell and helps adhere to surfaces and each other, it also contributes to biofilms
  15. name the two different types of coats for glycocalyx
    capsule and slime layer
  16. how is the capsule layer beneficial to the cell?
    protects the cell from phagocytosis
  17. describe the slime layer
    unorganizzed and loose, more in enviromental areas such as bath tub
  18. Do bacterium have flagella?
    yes to be moble
  19. What is flagella made out of
    chains of flagelin-protein
  20. What do flagella hook to?
    a protein hook anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body
  21. what are motile cells capible of doing?
    moving toward or away from stimuli (taxis) rotating flagella to run or tumble
  22. flagella proteins are called what?
    H antigens
  23. Where are axial filaments found?
    only in spirochetes
  24. Axial filaments are also called?
  25. Where is axial filaments located?
    between an exterior sheath and the cell wall
  26. How do axial filaments cause the cell to move?
    by rotation like a corkscrew, can also have flagella to help get to something and then make its way in by corkscrewing in
  27. What are fimbriae for?
  28. pilus is?
    singular for pilli
  29. is fimbriae needed to attack  to cause an infection?
  30. This facilitate transfer of dna from one cell to another
  31. what also maybe involved with gliding and twitching motility in a cell?
  32. his prevents osmotic lysis
    the cell wall
  33. what is the cell wall made out of?
    peptidoglycan /protein,sugar/
  34. if a stain wall were to dye blue what kind of cell wall is it?
    gram +
  35. If a cell wall were to dye red what kind of cell wall is it?
    gram negative
  36. do humans have peptoglycan cell walls
    no only bacteria
  37. peptidoglycan in gram-postive bacteria are linked by what?
  38. is the gram positive bacterial cell wall thick or thin?
  39. how does PCN attack a gram postive wall
    by preventing cross bridge links so links would not be able to form
  40. an antigen found in gram + that helps identify them?
    teichoic acid
  41. what kind of cell wall has a very thin peplidoglycan cell layer?
    gram negative
  42. what cell membrane has the double layer laying on top of the peptoglycan layer?
    gram neg
  43. what cell membrane has many lipids involved
    gram neg
  44. what cell wall has O polysaccaride as an antigen
    gram neg that stick out on the outside
  45. There are cell walls that cannot stain what are they?
    Atypical cell walls only found in a few bacteria and have to do a special acid/base stain example TB
  46. these cells lack a cell wall and have sterols in the plasma membrane
  47. This cell has no cell membrane or walls of pseudomurein
  48. What is the main feature that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes?
  49. How would you be able to identify streptococci through a microscope?
    spiralic shape and chains
  50. Bacillus is what shaped?
    rod shaped
  51. What shape is coocus?
  52. what shape takes on spirillum, vibrio and spirochete?
  53. diplococci is
    pairs of cicles
  54. staphylocci is
    cluster of circles
  55. streptococci is, or streptobacilli
    chains of circles, or chains of rods
  56. the prefix staph will only go with?
  57. What layer is more pathogenic to a cell, capsule of slime?
    capsule because it protects them from phagocytosis
  58. What does trichous?
  59. what is lophotrichous?
    a cell with a tuft of flagella on it
  60. What is amphitrichous?
    a bacteria with 2 flagella one on each end.
  61. Fimbrae allow for attatchment but what else do they contribute?
  62. What are fimbriae and pili made out of?
  63. What is a cell wall for?
    helps hold cell together, and gives shape, also prevents osmotic lysis
  64. What is the antigen for gram neg?
  65. What is lipid A for on the gram stain neg?
    it anchors the lipopolysaccharide down.
  66. What happens when lipid A an endotoxin when the cell wall is damaged?
    it releases toxins into the body
  67. What is the part that sticks out of the gram neg bacteria on the lipolysaccharide?
    O polysacharide, also antignic
  68. What is it called when a cell wall is damaged  and it causes the bacteria  to form spherical shapes?
    proplasts or speroplasts
  69. Bacteria who lose there cell wall, can they also form a L shape?
  70. Bacteria who lose a cell wall can they gain it back?
    yes they can, it is possible for them to survive and rebuild when conditions go back to normal. AKA stop taking antibiotics.