-Shapes and organized language so that its a design
-Foreground language and its meteriality because it precludes the common reading pratice of regarding languages as a trasparent, a window onto the "real world" and expression of truth instead of a construction of "truth"
-Enables the reader to feel compelled to excplore the mechanics, the relationships and the operation of language
Forefrounds the auditory materiality of language
Reminds us that landuage is a system of signs by drawing our attention to the signifiers, to the ways that the words are organized to create certian effects.
Prompts us to pay attention to the play of language
example: put put put put put put, Fump fump Fump, Bang
A prose statement embedded in a paragraph
Rearranges prose words to constuct a poem by playing with the space of the page, line, lengths, and stanzaic structures.
Encourages people to examine the effects of the shape and the structures of poems
Transforms poetry into a prose (or at least produces a hybrid that does not look much like poetry, but has a distinctly "poetic" tone.)
Repetition of initial or first consonant sounds
ex: Wilful waster makes woeful want.
A figure of speech which:
-The absent are addressed as if they were present
-The dead are addressed as if they were living
-Inanimate objects are addressed as if they were living
Is often an ivocation to the muses or an address to a famous person of the past.
Repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in a sequence of words close to one.
ex: The deep blue sea is real. (the "e" sound)
A harsh, unpleasent combination of discordant sounds.
The close repetition of similar or indentical consonants of words whose main vowerl differ
A pair of rhymed lines
A pleasing combination of sounds and rhythm
A figure of speech based on exaggeration.
Two or more things placed side by side, even though they usually aren't associated with each other
Often used to enhance, contrast, change, or synthesize an image
Ex: Dog/Wolf, Tiger/Baby
A comparison between two unlike things, usually suggests one thing is like another
A figure of speech that replaces the subject for its characteristics or the characteristics for the subject
Ex: The kettle boils, The jock was running laps
An eight-line stanza that is particularly used to describe the first right lines of a Petrachan sonnet
The sound of the word that mimics the sound to which it refers
Ex: Crash, Boom, Ring
Putting together words which seem to contradict one another
ex: bitter sweet, giant shrimp
A statement that seems to contradict itself or to conflict with common sense. However it contains a truth
To give human characteristices to inanimate objects, animals, or ideas
The most common stanza in English poetry, consisting of four lines
A phrase, or verse, which recurs at intervals, especially at the end of each stanza of a poem/song
The harmony or identification of sound values
a) perfect/Masculine Rhyme: The repetition of stessed vowels and their subsequent consonants.
b) Double/Feminine Rhyme: Has two syllables that rhyme
The pattern in which the rhyming sounds occur in a poem. The rhymes are generally indicated by letters of the alphabet
The flow of the poem as created by alternating stressed and unstressed syllables
A comparison between two unlike things in which the word like or as is present
Similes that are commonly used are considered weak in poetry and are reffered to as trite
A figure of speech in which a part is named for a whole