Medieval Art (part 2)

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felara9614
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173799
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Medieval Art (part 2)
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2012-09-30 12:18:57
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Medieval Art (part 2)
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    • Paliotto
    • Artist: Master Wolvinius
    • Era: Carolingian, early 9th century
    • Location: Sant' Ambrogio, Milan
    • Techniques:
    • made of gold, silver, enamel, precious and semi-precious stones
    • altar piece shaped like a tomb
    • geometric sections to house scenes from the life of Christ, the twelve apostles, and the four evangelist
    • Christ in center of cross
    • evangelsits in arms of crossscenes on backside
    • differences from Christ in Majesty with Four Evangelists and Scene form the Life of Christ
    •    - not as many jewels, smaller
    •    - focus on gold silver and enamel
    •    - more sections
    • Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne
    • Era: Carolingian, 793-805
    • Location: Aachen, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • octagon center with rounded walls
    • apse is axially aligned to the narthex tightening the building - no apse like extensions from the building
    • exterior
    •   - two cylindrical towers with spiral stairs
    •   - entrance has a large framing arch
    •   - behind that is a marble throne so that emperor could peer at altar
    • interor
    •    - no built in seats
    •    - rounded Roman arch
    •    - two colored stone (prophyry marble) arches
    • arches divided by piers not columns
    • clear windows in dome, light hits gold tiled mosaics
    • similar to Panthenon and San Vitale 
    • Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne
    • Era: Carolingian, 793-805
    • Location: Aachen, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • octagon center with rounded walls
    • apse is axially aligned to the narthex tightening the building - no apse like extensions from the building
    • exterior
    •    - two cylindrical towers with spiral stairs
    •    - entrance has a large framing arch
    •    - behind that is a marble throne so that emperor could peer at altar
    • interor
    •    - no built in seats
    •    - rounded Roman arch
    •    - two colored stone (prophyry marble) arches
    • arches divided by piers not columns
    • clear windows in dome, light hits gold tiled mosaics
    • similar to Panthenon and San Vitale 
    • Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne
    • Era: Carolingian, 793-805
    • Location: Aachen, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • octagon center with rounded walls
    • apse is axially aligned to the narthex tightening the building - no apse like extensions from the building
    • exterior
    •     - two cylindrical towers with spiral stairs
    •     - entrance has a large framing arch
    •     - behind that is a marble throne so that emperor could peer at altar
    • interor
    •    - no built in seats
    •    - rounded Roman arch
    •    - two colored stone (prophyry marble) arches
    • arches divided by piers not columns
    • clear windows in dome, light hits gold tiled mosaics
    • similar to Panthenon and San Vitale 
    • Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne
    • Era: Carolingian, 793-805
    • Location: Aachen, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • octagon center with rounded walls
    • apse is axially aligned to the narthex tightening the building - no apse like extensions from the building
    • exterior
    •    - two cylindrical towers with spiral stairs
    •    - entrance has a large framing arch
    •    - behind that is a marble throne so that emperor could peer at altar
    • interor
    •    - no built in seats
    •    - rounded Roman arch
    •    - two colored stone (prophyry marble) arches
    • arches divided by piers not columns
    • clear windows in dome, light hits gold tiled mosaics
    • similar to Panthenon and San Vitale 


    • Plan of Monastery at St. Gall
    • Era: Carolingian, 819
    • Location: Switzerland
    • Techniques:
    • originally in red ink on parchement
    • never built
    • center is church
    • colonaded courtyard on side, earthly paradise only for monks
    • basilica plan with long sides for entrance
    • towers on west with an additional apse
    • black dots are columns
    • 2.5 feet is one unit
    • naves with is 40ft
    • length of everything measured out precisely
    • had a main and an alternative altar
    • Engraving of St. Riquier
    • Era: Carolingian, 800
    • Location: Centula, France
    • Techniques:
    • unique forum towers
    • east-west orientation
    • atrium on long side
    • typical atrium, nave, aisle, and transept
    • St. Micheal
    • Artist: Bishop Bernward
    • Era: Ottonian, 1000
    • Location: Hildesheim, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • double transept - 4 towers
    • aisle separated from nave by rhythmic pattern of 1 pier, 2 columns
    • module, is as big as a crossing square (where transept meets the nave)
    • 2 crossing towers
    • nave is 3 modules long
    • flat ceiling
    • nave arcades
    • giant two-toned arch that leads into the crossing square
    • open interior to have good view of apse
    • St. Micheal
    • Artist: Bishop Bernward
    • Era: Ottonian, 1000
    • Location: Hildesheim, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • double transept - 4 towers
    • aisle separated from nave by rhythmic pattern of 1 pier, 2 columns
    • module, is as big as a crossing square (where transept meets the nave)
    • 2 crossing towers
    • nave is 3 modules long
    • flat ceiling
    • nave arcades
    • giant two-toned arch that leads into the crossing square
    • open interior to have good view of apse
    • St. Micheal
    • Artist: Bishop Bernward
    • Era: Ottonian, 1000
    • Location: Hildesheim, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • double transept - 4 towers
    • aisle separated from nave by rhythmic pattern of 1 pier, 2 columns
    • module, is as big as a crossing square (where transept meets the nave)
    • 2 crossing towers
    • nave is 3 modules long
    • flat ceiling
    • nave arcades
    • giant two-toned arch that leads into the crossing square
    • open interior to have good view of apse
    • Doors of St. Micheal
    • Artist: Bishop Bernward
    • Era: Ottonian, 1015
    • Location: Hildesheim, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • made of bronze  
    • 16ft 6 inches  
    • lost wax casting process  
    • single cast
    • only monks could pass through the doors
    • left door highlights scenes from the Book of Genesis (birth of Adam to murder of Adam and Eve's son)
    • right door has scenes from the life of Christ (annunciation to the ressurection)
    • tell the story of original sin and the ultimate redemption
    • simplicity and strong emotional impact
    • Saint Étienne, Vignroy
    • Era: Romanesque, 1050-1057
    • Location: France
    • Techniques:
    • wooden interior roof
    • 2nd story screen-like wall with alternating piers and column
    • that open onto tall flanking aisle - tribune
    • heavy block piers
    • east end has an ambulatory around the choir
    • 3 semicircular chapels that open onto apse, radiating chapels, where they housed the relics
    • stone sculpture on exterior
    • relief decoration on capitals on 2nd level
    • organic designs
    • giant stone arch in nave
    • small clerestory windows
    • Saint Sernin
    • Era: Romanesque, 1080-1120
    • Location: Toulousse, France
    • Techniques:
    • two towers never finished
    • Gothic floor plan that resembles the Latin cross
    • heavy block appearance of simple front facade
    • 5 aisle church, two on each side of nave
    • pilrgimage church - wider and longer for more pilgrims - most Romanesque churches were pilgrimage churches - increase length of nave and increase number of side aisle
    • focus on ambularoty and radiating chapels
    • 5 radiating chapels around ambulatory 4 more on transept- larger piers and thick walls
    • module system or square schematism model
    • bay is a section of nave - 2 bays is one crossing square
    • bay is a rectangle
    • tribune over inner aisles
    • aisles were overflow sections, obscure view of altar
    • each aisle has an X which denotes a groin vaulted ceiling
    • groin vaults in tribunes too - helps with pressure from giant nave - buttressing for the barrel vault of the nave
    • ribs in barrel vault of nave
    • engaged columns that lead from ribs to floor
    • heavy and dark structure - no clerestory windows
    • galleries had windows in outer aisle only
    • piers mark the corner of each bay - embellished with engaged half columns
    • each groin vault in aisle is seperated by a ribbed barrel vault
    • double lines indicate a rib on the plan
    • Saint Sernin
    • Era: Romanesque, 1080-1120
    • Location: Toulousse, France
    • Techniques:
    • two towers never finishe
    • Gothic floor plan that resembles the Latin cross
    • heavy block appearance of simple front facade
    • 5 aisle church, two on each side of nave
    • pilrgimage church - wider and longer for more pilgrims - most Romanesque churches were pilgrimage churches - increase length of nave and increase number of side aisle
    • focus on ambularoty and radiating chapels
    • 5 radiating chapels around ambulatory 4 more on transept- larger piers and thick walls
    • module system or square schematism model
    • bay is a section of nave - 2 bays is one crossing square
    • bay is a rectangle
    • tribune over inner aisle
    • aisles were overflow sections, obscure view of altar
    • each aisle has an X which denotes a groin vaulted ceiling
    • groin vaults in tribunes too - helps with pressure from giant nave - buttressing for the barrel vault of the nave
    • ribs in barrel vault of nave
    • engaged columns that lead from ribs to floor
    • heavy and dark structure - no clerestory windows
    • galleries had windows in outer aisle only
    • piers mark the corner of each bay - embellished with engaged half columns
    • each groin vault in aisle is seperated by a ribbed barrel vault
    • double lines indicate a rib on the plan
    • Speyer Cathedral 
    • Era: Romanesque, 1030
    • Location: Speyer, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • groin vaults over nave - typically Gothic
    • burial place of holy roman emperors and seat of powerful local bishop
    • wooden roof originally
    • 2 colored stone on ceiling - ribs are darker
    • towers at both ends
    • entrance is opposite apse
    • windows between groins
    • no gallery
    • alternate wall support system - ribs occur at every other column
    • creates rhythm with alternating support system and two toned stone
    • 107ft vaulted ceiling-
    • nave is 45ft wide
    • Speyer Cathedal
    • Era: Romanesque, 1030
    • Location: Speyer, Germany
    • Techniques:
    • groin vaults over nave - typically Gothic
    • burial place of holy roman emperors and seat of powerful local bishop
    • wooden roof originally
    • 2 colored stone on ceiling - ribs are darker
    • towers at both ends
    • entrance is opposite apse
    • windows between groins
    • no gallery
    • alternate wall support system - ribs occur at every other column
    • creates rhythm with alternating support system and two toned stone
    • 107ft vaulted ceiling
    • nave is 45ft wide
    • Sant' Ambrogio
    • Era: Romanesque, 11th-12th century
    • Location: Milan, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • atrium in early Christian tradition
    • two story narhex
    • two adjoined bell towers
    • east end - crossing tower was octagonal in shape and shorter
    • no transept
    • groin vaults around atrium
    • 3 aisle church
    • 3 large bays
    • ribbed, groin vaulted ceiling
    • 2 small squares in aisle to one large square in nave
    • groin vaults in aisle
    • Interior
    •    - simple ornamentation
    •    - vaults are slightly domes
    •    - vaults are higher that the arch into the nave
    •    - alternating support system
    •    - play of color with the use of bricks
    •    - large rounded arches
    •    - geometric regularity
    •    - bundled columns
    • Sant' Ambrogio
    • Era: Romanesque, 11th-12th century
    • Location: Milan, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • atrium in early Christian tradition
    • two story narhex
    • two adjoined bell towers
    • east end - crossing tower was octagonal in shape and shorter
    • no transept
    • groin vaults around atrium
    • 3 aisle church
    • 3 large bays
    • ribbed groin vaulted ceiling
    • 2 small squares in aisle to one large square in nave
    • groin vaults in aisle
    • Interior
    •    - simple ornamentation
    •    - vaults are slightly domes
    •    - vaults are higher that the arch into the nave
    •    - alternating support system
    •    - play of color with the use of bricks
    •    - large rounded arches
    •    - geometric regularity
    •    - bundled columns
    • Sant' Ambrogio
    • Era: Romanesque, 11th-12th century
    • Location: Milan, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • atrium in early Christian tradition
    • two story narhex
    • two adjoined bell towers
    • east end - crossing tower was octagonal in shape and shorter
    • no transept
    • groin vaults around atrium
    • 3 aisle church
    • 3 large bays
    • ribbed groin vaulted ceiling
    • 2 small squares in aisle to one large square in nave
    • groin vaults in aisle
    • Interior
    •    - simple ornamentation
    •    - vaults are slightly domes
    •    - vaults are higher that the arch into the nave
    •    - alternating support system
    •    - play of color with the use of bricks
    •    - large rounded arches
    •    - geometric regularity
    •    - bundled columns
    • Saint Étienne, Caen
    • Era: Romanesque, 1067
    • Location: France
    • Techniques:
    • Vikings - called Normans in France - started tradition of symbolism of holy trinity in architecture
    • Exterior
    •    - divided into 3 vertical registers that represent the holy trinity - seperated by 4 large butresses
    •    - 3 registers horizontally, 3 windows in grouping, 3 portals   - tower windows get larger as they go up the tower - optical illusion to make the towers seem taller
    •    - 3 registers of windows in eeach tower
    • 3 ailse church
    • 2 aisle in one bay
    • alternating support system
    • sexpartite vaults - 6 part bay - rib in middle of groin - compresses the ceiling - walls go taller and can be closer
    • X of groin is also ribbed
    • compound piers - engaged half columns
    • reduction in wall mass due to more arches
    • clerestory windows
    • 3 part elevation with nave, tribune, and clerestory windows
    • columns separate clerestory windows
    • Saint Étienne, Caen
    • Era: Romanesque, 1067
    • Location: France
    • Techniques:
    • Vikings - called Normans in France - started tradition of symbolism of holy trinity in architecture
    • Exterior
    •    - divided into 3 vertical registers that represent the holy trinity - seperated by 4 large butresses
    •    - 3 registers horizontally, 3 windows in grouping, 3 portals   - tower windows get larger as they go up the tower - optical illusion to make the towers seem taller
    •    - 3 registers of windows in eeach tower
    • 3 ailse church
    • 2 aisle in one bay
    • alternating support system
    • sexpartite vaults - 6 part bay - rib in middle of groin - compresses the ceiling - walls go taller and can be closer
    • X of groin is also ribbed
    • compound piers - engaged half columns
    • reduction in wall mass due to more arches
    • clerestory windows
    • 3 part elevation with nave, tribune, and clerestory windows
    • columns separate clerestory windows

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