Mechanisms of disease Ch.14 Review

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Mechanisms of disease Ch.14 Review
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2012-09-27 03:20:56
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Physio Chapter 14 Review sheet
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-By Mimi Nguyen
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  1. Pathogen 
    A cell that causes disease 
  2. Difference between signs and symptoms? What do we have if we put it together? 
    • Sign is temp, weight ( numerical values measured by someone else) 
    • Symptom is hot, headeache ( what you feel ) 
  3. Differences between an acute and chronic disease 
    • Acute: temporary illness (days-weeks) ex flu 
    • Chronic: long term illness ( months, years, lifetime) ex cancer 
  4. incubation 
    dormant,diseases not fully developed 
  5. remission 
    temporary reversal of a disease, not yet cured 
  6. etiology 
    study of known causes of diseases 
  7. idiopathic 
    study of unknown causes of a disease 
  8. epidemic 
    effects state/country (ex. West Nile virus) 
  9. Endemic 
    effect local, cities (ex. Hanta Virus) 
  10. Pandemic 
    effects globally (ex. HIV) 
  11. How is a bacteria cell different from a eukaryotic cell? 
    Bacterica cells has a capsule white eukaryotic does not 
  12. What three ways are bacteria classifed 
    • 1. function :anaerobic(w/o fermentation), aerobic(w/ O2) 
    • 2. stains: Gram +(purple)  Gram - (red) 
    • 3. shape and size: bacillus(rod) coccus(circle) spiral/cureved(rare) 
  13. The average size of a bacteria is ____ than the average size of a virus 
    Larger 
  14. Why are antibiotics inneffective against viruses
    Antibiotics work to alter the cell wall of a bacteria. By vreaking down the cell wall, it destroys the bacteria. Viruses have capsule so it is harder to break down 
  15. Define vaccine and how it produces its effects 
    -weakened form of the virus that makes memory T-cells that can fight off virus if ever come in contact. Vaccines produces its effect by preventing illness and lessen epidemics spreading 
  16. How are viruses different from living cells 
    viruses require living hosts in order to reproduce and are unacle to function outside of a living host cell. They lack the metabloic machinery found in all cells 
  17. 3 major categories of viruses, examples 
    Animals ; small pox ; plants potato x-y ; bacteria ;food poisoning 
  18. reverse transcription and its relation to retrovirus. like HIV 
    RNA transcribed to DNA inside the host. The virus DNA incorporates into cell chromosome-> mRNA->HIV proteins. Then bud off and infect other cells. 
  19. How are prions similar and different from viruses 
    • similar : both nonliving. Need a host in order to reproduce 
    • different: prions do not have DNA or RNA they are proteins 
  20. Filoviruses? Examples 
    Thread-like viruses. They spread by contact with contaminated blood or tissue and cause a severe form of hemorrahagic fever. EXAMPLE: Ebola 
  21. How do new viruses emerge
    A cross-species transmission from animals to human known as zoonosis
  22. Basic structure of a viron 
    contains a single type of nucleic acit (DNA or RNA) encased in a protein coat or capsid. In some cases, the capsid is covered by an envolope. 
  23. Distinguish between innate and adaptive body defenses against infection 
    Innate defense protects against many types of pathogens. The skin, mucous membranes, and tears fight against the infection adaptive body defense is very specialized in attacking specific foreign molecules EXAMPLE: lymphocytes and antigens 
  24. What is innate defense and examples 
    • the first line defense 
    • EXAMPLES: skin eyelashes hair tears mucous membranes fevers and inflammation 
  25. Distinguish between antigen and antibody 
    • Antigen are proteins outside og the cell that can recognize yourself from foreign invaders 
    • Antibodies, when attacked , are released to fight nonself invaders 
  26. Origin of T cells and B cells 
    • T stands for Thymus 
    • B stands for Bone marrow 
  27. Cellular and humoral immunity and to which type of lymphocytes do they function 
    • Cellular immunity is when TCELLS attack DIRECTLY 
    • Humoral immunity is when BCELLS attack INDIRECTLY 
  28. Distinguish bewteen primary and secondary immune response 
    • Primary: activates BCELLS and TCELLS to cause a response 
    • Secondary: use recognized memory cells to fight off invaders 
  29. How are allergic reactions similar and different to an immune response 
    • Similar: they sensitize lymphocytes,antibodies, and many bind antigens 
    • Diff: how they damage tissue 
  30. Explain relationship between tissure rejection response and cellular immune response 
    Tissue rejection resembles the cellular immune response against a nonself antigen. The greater the antigenic difference between the cell surface molecules of the patients tissues and donors tissues, the more rapid and severe the rejection 
  31. What is autoimmunity and give examples of autoimmune disorders 
    when the immune system fails to distinquish self from nonself and ends up attacking against self. EXAMPLES: juvenile diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus 

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