APUSH Chapter 10 Key Terms

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APUSH Chapter 10 Key Terms
2012-09-27 08:15:05

APUSH Key Terms: Unit 3, Chapter 10
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  1. Ratification of Constitution
    • 1. Had to be ratified by nine out of thirteen states
    • 2. Anti-federalists opposed it
    • 3. June 1788 the Constituion was ratified by nine sates
    • 4. Virginia held out until Bill of Rights
    • 5. North Carolina ratified November 1788 and Rhode Island May 1790
    • 6. First president in 1789
  2. George Washington for President
    • Esteemed war hero unanimously drafted as president by the Electoral College
    • First president of the United States
    • Was possibly the only president who did not in some way angle for the presidential office
    • Commanded his followers by strength of character rather than by the arts of the politician
  3. Adding the Bill of Rights
    • The first 10 amendments to the Constitution, adopted by the necessary # of states in 1791
    • Safeguarded mos precious American principles
    • Madison added 9th & 10th Amendments -- specified certain rights "shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people" + rights not explicitly stated as federal are state laws (to pacify anti-federalists)
  4. Judiciary Act of 1789
    Congress that implemented the judiciary clause of the Constitution by establishing the Supreme Court (with a chief justice and five associates) and a system of lower federal courts (federal district and circuit courts).  Also established the office of attorney general.
  5. Funding at Par
    Payments of debts, such as government bonds, at face value, plus accumulated interest. In 1790, Alexander Hamilton proposed that the federal government pay its Revolutionary war debts in full in order to bolster the nation's credit.
  6. Hamilton's Protective Tariff a.k.a Hamilton's Tariff
    • The first tariff law passed by first Congress July 4, 1789
    • Imposed a low tariff of about 8% on the value of dutiable imports
    • Main Goal = increase revenue for debt + interest
    • 2nd Goal = protect infant industries (Hamilton had foresight to see industrial revolution would reach US, argued strongly for more protection for well-to-do manufacturing groups)
  7. Whiskey Tax
    • Additional source of revenue sought by Hamilton to raise federal revenue
    • Hamilton proposed an exercise tax ("sin" tax) on a few domestic items, notably the sale of whiskey, which he secured from Congress in 1791
    • New levy of 7 cents a gallon was borne chiefly by distillers who lived in the backcountry
  8. The Bank of the  United States
    • 1st national bank created by Congress 1791 and was charted for 20 years, located in Philadelphia
    • Had a capital of $10 million, 1/5 of it owned by the federal govt, and stock thrown open to public sale
    • Financial N for, agriculture S against
    • Created to handle financial needs + requirements of C govt of newly formed US, previously 13 individual states w/ own banks, currencies, financial institutions and policies
  9. Elastic Clause (Necessary and Proper Clause)
    The final paragraph of Article 1, Section 8, stating that Congress has the right to make and exercise all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers expressed in the other clauses of Article 1, i.e. establishment of the first Bank of the United States.
  10. Implied Powers
    Powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article 1 Section 8 of constitution. Such powers not specifically expressed but implied through expansive interpretation of delegated powers.
  11. Whiskey Rebellion
    • A 1794 protest by Pennsylvania Farmers against Whiskey tax placed by Hamilton
    • Farmers who sold their corn in the form of whiskey had to pay a new tax which they strongly resented
    • Crushed by Washington's troops = demonstrated the power of the govt. created by the constitution
  12. Impact of the French Revolution on the United States
    • Helped US exports
    • Almost resulted in war btw US and GB (GB didn't like US trading w/ the French)
    • US able to make the Louisiana Purchase (Napoleon needed cash) 
    • Strengthened the US in the Americas (Monroe Doctrine was in part possible because Europe was weakened by the Napoleonic War)
  13. Citizen Edmond Genet
    • Representative of the French Republic who took advantage of the existing Franco-American alliance
    • Believed Neutrality Proclamation didn't reflect the true wishes of US people
    • Unauthorized activity incl. the recruitment of armies to invade Spanish FL + LA and French Canada
    • Madison + Jefferson initially disillusioned by him
    • Threatened to appeal over the head of "Old Washington" to sovereign voters > was kicked out of the country
  14. Neutrality Proclamation, 1793
    • 1793 Washington formally announced America as neutral in the war btw Britain & France, wanting to avoid war and stay peaceful w/ both countries
    • Threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any country at war
    • South was upset because France helped in the American Revolution, North wanted Britain for trade
  15. Jay's Treaty
    An unpopular treaty with Britain in 1794 in which the United States made major concessions to avert a war over the British seizure of American ships.
  16. Pinckney's Treaty With Spain, 1795
    • An unforeseen consequence of John Jay's treaty w/ Britain out of the fear that his treaty foreshadowed an Anglo-American alliance
    • Granted Americans virtually everything they demanded, incl. free navigation of the Mississippi, right of deposit in New Orleans, and the large disputed territory N of Florida
  17. Washington's Two Term Tradition
    • Following the diplomatic and partisan battles of his second term, Washington elected to retire
    • Choice contributed powerful to establishing a 2-term tradition for American presidents, unbroken until 1940 by Franklin D. Roosevelt
    • Made part of the Constitution in 1951 as the 22nd amendment
  18. Washington's Farewell Address
    • Never orally delivered but printed in newspapers
    • He strongly advised the avoidance of "permanent alliances" like the still vexatious Franco-American Treaty of 1778
  19. XYZ Affair, 1797
    During her war against other European nations, France began to seize goods from neutral American cargo ships. John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and C.C. Pinckney, US representatives, attempted to meet with French Foreign Minister Talleyrand to settle the dispute. However, anonymous French ministers X, Y and Z required a loan 32M florins and $250,000 in cash to even consider negotiations. Americans demanded war after this incident.
  20. Alien Laws, 1798
    Acts passed by a Federalist Congress raising the residency requirement for citizenship from five years to fourteen years (a drastic new law that violated the traditional American policy of open-door hospitality and speedy assimilation) and granting the president the power to deport dangerous foreigners in times of peace, and deport or imprison them in times of hostilities.
  21. Sedition Act
    Provided for fines or imprisonment anyone who used language that stirred discontent or rebellion in the government
  22. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional 
  23. Compact Theory
    The idea that the Constitution was created by the states and so the states could dissolve it, advocated first by Madison and Jefferson and later by Robert Y. Hayne and John C. Calhoun 
  24. Nullification
    A constitutional theory advanced most notably by John C Calhoun and other advocates of states' rights, espousing the right of a state to declare null and void a law passed by the US congress that the state found to be unconsitutional or disagreeable