Pharmacology

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Author:
mmcgraw
ID:
173831
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2012-09-27 08:34:12
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Pharmacology Neuro Movement Disorder Meds
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Pharmacology: Neuro: Movement Disorder Meds
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  1. Edrophonium (Tensilon) Uses:
    test the neuromuscular junctionin order to diagnose myasthenia gravis.
  2. Edrophonium (Tensilon) Actions:
    inhibits the destruction of acetylcholineby acetylcholinesterase. It increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscularjunction and improves neuromuscular contraction.
  3. Edrophonium (Tensilon) Side Effects:
    Muscle weakness• Bradycardia• Hypotension• Abdominal cramps• Increased salivation• Blurred vision• Nausea
  4. Edrophonium (Tensilon) Nursing Interventions:
    Have atropine sulfate (Sal-Tropine) available to reverse the effects    of edrophonium (Tensilon).• Monitor heart rate and respirations, and watch for other adverse    reactions.
  5. Pyridostigmine (Mestinon) Uses:
    Reverse nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers• Treat myasthenia gravis• Improve survival after exposure to Soman (nerve agent)
  6. Pyridostigmine (Mestinon) Actions:
    inhibits the destruction of acetylcholineby acetylcholinesterase. It increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscularjunction and improves neuromuscular contraction.
  7. Pyridostigmine (Mestinon) Side Effects:
    Seizures• Bradycardia• Bronchospasm• Bronchoconstriction• Increased secretions
  8. Pyridostigmine (Mestinon) Nursing Interventions:
    Have atropine sulfate (Sal-Tropine) available to reverse the effects   of pyridostigmine (Mestinon).• Monitor heart rate, respirations and for other adverse reactions.• Take 8 hours prior to exposure to Soman.• Inform client to take drug at the same each day.
  9. Neostigmine (Prostigmin) Uses:
    Treat or diagnose myasthenia gravis• Reverse nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers• Relieve bladder atony and abdominal distention• Treat supraventricular tachycardia caused by overdose of tricyclics• Reduce small bowel movement
  10. Neostigmine (Prostigmin) action:
    inhibits the destruction of acetylcholineby acetylcholinesterase. It increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscularjunction and improves neuromuscular contraction.
  11. Neostigmine (Prostigmin) Side Effects:
    Cardiac arrest• Bradycardia• Bronchospasm• Bronchoconstriction• Increased secretions• Muscle cramps
  12. Neostigmine (Prostigmin) Nursing Interventions:
    Have atropine sulfate (Sal-Tropine) available to reverse the effects   of neostigmine (Prostigmin).• Monitor heart rate, respirations and for other adverse reactions.• Inform client to take drug at the same each day.• Take drug with food.
  13. Dopaminergic medications are medications that:
    • Stimulate the release of dopamine• Replace dopamine
    • are used in Parkinson's disease toincrease dopamine levels in the brain.
  14. Anticholinergic:
    1. Anticholinergic medications are medications that block acetylcholine. 2. Anticholinergic medications are used in Parkinson's disease to treat    muscle tremors and rigidity.
  15. Amantadine (Symmetrel) Uses:
    Influenza type A prophylaxis or treatment• Extrapyramidal reactions caused by medications• Parkinson's disease
  16. Amantadine (Symmetrel) Actions:
    prevent influenza A virus from enteringcells. It reduces the extrapyramidal effects of Parkinson’s disease bystimulating the release of dopamine.
  17. Amantadine (Symmetrel) side effects:
    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (hyperthermia, rigidity, tachycardia,    unstable blood pressure)• Heart failure• Anorexia• Nausea• Insomnia
  18. Amantadine (Symmetrel) Nursing interventions:
    Dividing dose may reduce the neuroleptic effects in the elderly client.• Do not give before bed to prevent insomnia.• Monitor intake and output.• Advise client to continue medication as ordered. Parkinsonian crisis   may occur if medication is discontinued suddenly.
  19. Benztropine (Cogentin) Uses:
    Extrapyramidal reactions caused by medications• Parkinson's disease• Acute dystonia (muscle tone dysfunction usually induced by   medications)
  20. Benztropine (Cogentin) actions:
    block acetylcholine at the cholinergicreceptors, reducing involuntary motion
  21. Benztropine (Cogentin):side effects:
    Paradoxical bradycardia• Constipation• Tachycardia• Muscle weakness• Dilated pupils
  22. Benztropine (Cogentin) Nursing intervention
    Monitor dyskinesia prior to and after start of medication.• Do not discontinue drug suddenly. Gradually reduce.• Give after meals.
  23. Levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet) Uses:
    Parkinson’s disease, including Parkinson’s disease caused by   encephalopathy• Carbon monoxide and manganese poisoning
  24. Levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet) aCtion:
    act by increasing dopamineand levodopa in the extrapyramidal centers of the brain, reducinginvoluntary motion.
  25. Levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet) side effects:
    Dystonia• Dyskinetic movements• Ataxia• Depression• Suicidal ideas• Irregular cardiac rhythm• Blepharospasm (eyelid spasms, twitching, blinking)• Hepatotoxicity
  26. Levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet) nursing interventions:
    Monitor dyskinesia prior to and after start of medication.• Monitor for adverse reactions. Muscle twitching and blepharospasm   may be signs of drug toxicity.• Give with food.• Use with caution in clients with open-angle glaucoma.• Monitor for changes in vital signs and mental health
  27. Bromocriptine (Parlodel) Uses:
    Parkinson’s disease• Acromegaly• Premenstrual syndrome• Cushing’s syndrome• Hepatic encephalopathy• Drug induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome• Amenorrhea or galactorrhea (abnormal nipple discharge)
  28. Bromocriptine (Parlodel) Actions:
    acts by inhibiting prolactin and stimulatingdopamine receptors. It improves fertility in women, reduces involuntarymovement, and reduces prolactin and growth hormone secretion.
  29. Bromocriptine (Parlodel) nursing intervention:
    Monitor dyskinesia prior to and after start of medication.• Monitor for adverse reactions.• Give with food.• Reduce dose in clients with renal disease.• Advise client on hormonal contraceptives to use barrier methods   to prevent pregnancy.• Advise client to rise slowly to prevent postural hypotension.
  30. Bromocriptine (Parlodel) side effects:
    Dizziness• Headache• Seizures• CVA• Syncope• Hypotension• Myocardial infarction• Nausea• Abdominal cramps
  31. IInterferon beta-1b (Betaseron) uses:
    used to treat multiple sclerosis.
  32. IInterferon beta-1b (Betaseron) actions:
    may change cellular response and boostprotein synthesis, causing a reduction in symptoms of multiple sclerosis.
  33. IInterferon beta-1b (Betaseron) side effects:
    Nausea• Diarrhea• Constipation• Altered menstruation• Leukopenia• Neutropenia• Fever• Chills• Suicidal ideas
  34. IInterferon beta-1b (Betaseron) Nursing interventions:
    Monitor multiple sclerosis exacerbations.• Monitor CBC, platelets, and liver functions.• Premedicate with acetaminophen.• Instruct client to notify health care provider if pregnant.• Monitor for changes in mental health.• Take before bedtime to reduce adverse effects.• Teach client to give himself drug subcutaneously.
  35. Interferon beta-1a (Rebif, Avonex) uses:
    Interferon beta-1a (Rebif, Avonex)
  36. Interferon beta-1a (Rebif, Avonex) actions:
    may change cellular response and boostprotein synthesis, causing a reduction in symptoms of multiple sclerosis.
  37. Interferon beta-1a (Rebif, Avonex) side effects:
    Leukopenia• Neutropenia• Fever• Chills• Suicidal ideas
  38. Interferon beta-1a (Rebif, Avonex) nursing interventions:
     Monitor multiple sclerosis exacerbations.• Monitor CBC, platelets, and liver functions.• Premedicate with acetaminophen.• Instruct client to notify health care provider if pregnant.• Monitor for changes in mental health.• Take before bedtime to reduce adverse effects.• Teach client to self-administer Interferon beta-1a (Rebif) subcutaneously.• Teach client to self-administer Interferon beta-1a (Avonex) intramuscularly.
  39. Glatiramer (Copaxone) uses:
    used to treat relapsing multiple sclerosis.
  40. Glatiramer (Copaxone) actions
    may alter T-cells to reduce cell inflammationand reduce destruction of myelin.
  41. Glatiramer (Copaxone) side effects:
    Dizziness• Fever• Chills• Depression• Flushing• Anxiety
  42. Glatiramer (Copaxone) nursing interventions
    Monitor multiple sclerosis exacerbations.• Monitor CBC, platelets, and liver functions.• Instruct client to notify health care provider if pregnant or breast feeding.• Monitor for changes in mental health.• Take before bedtime to reduce adverse effects.• Teach client to give himself drug subcutaneously.

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