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What is Sociology?
The Study of human behaviors as they are affected by social forces within groups, orgs, societies and the planet.
What is a Social Fact?
- Ideas, feelings and ways of behaving that possess the remarkable property of exsisiting outside comsciousness of the individual.
- Things you had no hand in creating.
What was the role of the Industrial Revolution in the development of Sociologoy?
- It was a time of great change in the social order
- Changed nature of work
- Changed notions of time and space
- Compulsory Education
Historical Development of Sociology?
Auguste Comte coins phrase Social physics in 1830's
- Three major forces lead to rise of Sociology:
- New Technology
- Urban Growth
- The Enlightenment.
- Conflict model
- Bourgeoisie= profit driven owners of production
- Proletariet= those who must sell their labor to boug
- Role of Profit= important measure of sucess in capitalist system.
- Focused on divison of labor and solidarity
- Solidarity=the system of social ties that connects people to one another and to the wider society. This system of social ties acts as "cement" binding people to each other and the society.
- Altruistic=state in which the ties attaching the individual to the group are such that he or she has no life beyond group.
- Egotistic=state in which ties attaching individual to others are weak.
- Anomic=state in which the ties attaching the individual to the group are disrubted due to dramatic changes in economic circumstances.
- Fatalistic=state in which ties attaching individual to to group are so opressive it offers no chance of release.
- Studied Social Actions
- Social Actions=Actions people take in response to others 4 types
- Traditional=because that is how it has always been done.
- Affectional=in response to an emotion(revenge or love)
- Value rational=awarness of the symbolic signifcance of actions taken to pursue goal. No comprimises or cost accounting.
- Instument Rational=valued goal pursued with any means, often without considering the appropriatness or consequences of action.
- Double conciousness= " this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity"
- Color Line=a barrier supported by customs and laws seperating whites and nonwhites, especially with regard to their place in the divison of labor.
Cell phone for the greats?
- Marx=means of production
- Durkheim=focus on how cell phones strengthen or weaken social ties.
- Weber=how people use or dont use cell phones to accomplish a variety of goals.
- DuBois=focus on scramble for resources
a situation in which social activitytranscens national borders and in which one country's problems-such as unemployment,drug abuse,terrorism and etc are parrt of a larger global situation.
The ever increasing flow of goods,services,money,people information and culture across political borders.
basic ideas of Globalization?
- Not new/very complex
- Technology speeds it up
- Invisibe production
- Multinational Corp's
- Boundaries(opens and closes at same time)
- Control of valued resources
A point of view that allows us to identify seemingly remote and impersonal social forces and connect them to our biographies.
Difference between "Troubles" and "Issues"
- Troubles=personal needs,problems,or difficulties that can be explained as individual shortcomings related to motivation, attitude, ability, character, or judgment.
- Issue= A matter that can be explained only by factors outside an individual's control and immediate envoronment.
Three main sociological theories?
- Fuctionalist= focuses on how the "parts" of society contribute in expected and unexpected ways to maintaining and disrupting an exsisting social order.
- Conflict=focus on conflict over scarce and valued resources and the strategies dominant groups use to create and protect the social arragements and practices that give them anadvantage in accessing and contolling those resources.
- Symbolic-interactionist =focus on social interaction and related concepts of self awareness/reflexive thinking, symbols and negotiated order.
- Manifest fuctions=intended or anticipated effects that a part has on the exsisting social order.
- Latent functions=unintended or unanticipated effects that a part has on the exsisting social order.
- Dysfunctions=disruptive consequences of a part to the exsisting social order.
- there are both manifest and latent dysfunctions as well.
Facade of legitimacy= An explanation that members of a dominant groups give to justify the social arragements that benefit them over others.
Symbolic- interactionist Perspective?
- Social Interaction=everyday encounters in which peoplecommunicate, interpret, and respond t each others words and actions.
- Symbol=any kind of physical phenomenon to which people assign a name, meaning, or value.
- Negotiated order=the sum of exsisting expectations and newly negotiated ones.
Basic steps of research process?
- 1.Choose a topic
- 2.Review the liteature
- 3.Identify and define core concepts
- 4.Choose research design and data gatering strategies.
Self adminstered Questionnaire?
- can be given to large #'s of people at one time.
- no interviewer to skew responses
- respondents can make mistake
- dont know if some types of people chose not to answer
- 2 kinds
- Structured=wording and order of questions set in advance can not change
- Unstructured=questions and answers are spontaneous and flexible
- More personal
- requires interviewer to maintain constant neutrality
- 2 kinds
- Nonparticipant=researher observes but does not interact.
- Participant=researher observes while directly interacting.
- can study behavior as it occurs
- learn info that cannot be easily surveyed
- acquire the viewpoint of other people under observation
- Very hard to recognize what is important
- Cultural misinterpretation
- Hawthorne effect=a phenomenon in which research subjects change behavior when they learn they are being watched.
- large amounts of data available
- many perspectives
- Distance from event or people your studying
Methods of research?
- Self-Administered Questionnaire
- Secondary Sources
- The way of life of a people; more specifically, the human-created strategies for adjusting to their surroundings and to those creatures(including humans) that are part of those surrroundings.
- 2 kinds of culture
- Material=all the natural and human created objects which people have attached meaning
- Nonmaterial=intangible human creations,which we can not identify directly through the senses.
Written and unwritten rules that specify behavior depending on situation
Conceptions that people accept as true, concerning how the world operatesand what the individuals role is
General shared conceptions of what is good or roghtin regard to conduct, apperance and states of being.
norms taht apply to mundane aspects of daily life.
Symbol system involving sounds,gestures and /or characters to convey meaning.
The process by which an idea, invention or cultural item is borrowed from foreign source.
A viewpoint that uses one culture usually the home culture to judge worth of foreign ways.
The perspective that a foreign culture shouldn't be judged by home culture but within a cultural context.
Groups that sher in some parts of the dominant culture but have own distictive values, norms beliefs, symbols, language or material culture.
private interests seeking to maximize their profits by manipulating markets to the detrimant of social stability and the collective good. Outside of democratic accountability the play games with poorly understood market mechanisms and risk negative social impact.
powerful ensemble of idealogical and institutional forces whose aim is to use the educational force of larger culture to produce, disseminate and circulate ideas.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis?
- AKA Sapir-Wharf Hypothesis
- The idea that "no two languages are ever sufficently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality. The worlds in which different society's live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with diferent labels attached."
The process by which people develop a sense of self and learn the ways of the society they live in.
process in which people accept the norms,values,beliefs and language that their socializers are attempting to pass on.
Effects of Extreme isolation?
Lack of human contact early in live while permanently and harmfully stunt development.
Memories role in socialization?
- On an individual level, memory allows people to know others and remember interacting with them. On a societal level, memory preserves the cultural past.Without it societies left reinventing the wheel.
- Collective memory=The experiences shared and recalled by significant numbers of people. Such memories are revived, preserved, shared passed o, and recast in many forms, such as stories, holidays, rituals, and monuments.
Meads theory of socialization?
- 3 stage process involving role-taking
- 1st stage: prepatory (<2) mimic or imitate but dont know meaning
- 2nd stage: Play (2-6) voluntary, spontaneous activity with few or no formal rules. No time or place restrictions.
- 3rd stage: Game Stage (7>) structured, organized activities that involve more than one person. Established roles and rules single purpose.
Looking glass self?
process in which sense of self develops, see ones self reflected in others real or imagined reactions to one's apperance and behavior.
Agents of socialization/
- Significant others, primary groups,in and out groups and institutions that
- Shape our sense of self or social identity
- Teach us which groups we do and dont belong to
- Help us realize are human capacities
- Help negotiate social and physical environment we inherited
Two or more people who share distinct identity, feel a sense f belonging and interact directly or indirectly
Social group with face to face contact and strong emotional ties.
In groups and out groups?
- In groups=group to which a person belongs,identifies,admires and/or feels loyalty
- Out groups=any group you dont belong to.
Socialization and the life cycle?
- Socialization happens in 8 stages.
- Infancy=need consistent care to develop sense of realible world.
- Toddler=frustration at inabilities, fight for autonomy
- Preschool=meads play stage
- Ages 6-12=systematic instruction instills confidence
- Adolescents=sexual maturation, search for identity and group formation
- Young Adulthood=form close and intimate bonds
- Middle Age=strengthened commitment to cherised people and objects.
- Old Age=face totality of life.
process of breaking behaviors and ways of thinking that are unsuited to exsisiting or changing circumstances, replacing them with new, more appropriate behaviors and thoughts.
largely invisible system that coordinates human interaction in brosdly predictable ways.
Human created and defined position in society.
Social statuses that are the result of chance, (race, sex, age)
Social statuses that are acquired through combo of choice, effort and ability (marital status, occupation)
All statuses an individual assumes.
One status in a set that overshadows the others and shapes every aspect of life and dominates social interaction
The behavior expected of a status in relation to another status.
Situation where roles associated with two or more distinct statuses conflict
situation where contradictory or conflicting role expectations associated with a single status.
process by which peopele in social situations manage the setting, their dress, their words and their gestures to correspond to the impression they are trying to make or the image they are trying to project.
Front and Backstage?
- Front Stage= area visible to audience, where people feel compelled to present themselves in expected ways.
- Back Stage=area out of audience sight, where individuals let down guard, do things that would be unexpected or inappropriate in frontstage.
Coordinating mechanisms that bring together people, resources technology and then channel human activity towards a specific outcome
An orginization that strives to use most efficent means to achieve a valued goal.
Process in which thought and action rooted in emotion, custom or mysterious forces are replaced by instrumental rational thought and action
McDonalization of Society?
"The process by which the pronciples of the fast food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world." (Ritzer)