Conjunctive adverb

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Author:
yitsidayana
ID:
173937
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Conjunctive adverb
Updated:
2012-09-27 19:03:25
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Writing
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Conjunctive adverbs can appear at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of one independent clause, but we often u se them to connect two independent clauses. Remember to put a semicolon before and a comma after the conjunctive adverb if an independent clause follows.
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  1. also       add a similar  idea
    besides  
    furthermore      (and)
    in addition
    moreover
    Community colleges offer preparation for many jobs; also, theyprepare students to transfer to four-year colleges or universities.

    ;besides,

    ; furthermore,

    ; in addition,

    ; moreover,
  2. To add an unexpected or surprising  continuation

    however
    nevertheless
    nonetheless
     still
    The cost of attendinga community collegeis low; however, many students need financial aid.

    ; nevertheless,

    ; nonetheless,                      (yet or but)

    ; still,
  3. To add a complete contrast

    in contrast
    on the other hand
    Most community colleges do not have dormitories; in contrast, most four-year colleges do.

    ; on the other hand,      (but)
  4. To add a result

    as a result
    consequently   (so)
    therefore
    thus
    • Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; as a result, most schools provide separate classes for each group.
    •                                             (or)
    • ; consequently,

    ; therefore,

    ; thus,
  5. To list ideas  in order of time

    meanwhile
    afterward then
    subsequently
    Police kept people away from the scene of the accident; meanwhile, ambulance workers tried to pull victims out of the wreck.

    The workers put five injured people into an ambulance; afterward, they found another victim.

    ; then,

    ; subsequently,
  6. To give an example

    for example

    for instance
    Colors can have different meanings; for example, white is the color of weddings in some cultures and of funerals in others.

    ; for instance,
  7. To show similarities

    similarly

    likewise
    • Hawaii has sunshine and friendly people; similarly, Mexico's
    • weather is sunny and its people hospitable.

    ; likewise,
  8. To indicate "the first statement is not  true; the second statement is true"

    instead (meaning"as a substitute")instead

    on the contrary
    rather
    The medicine did not make him feel better; instead, it made him feel worse.

    • ; on the contrary,
    • ; rather,
    • They had planned to go to Hawaii on their honeymoon; instead, they went to Mexico.
  9. To give another possibility

    alternatively
    on the other  hand
    otherwise (meaning "if not")
     
    You can live in a dorm on campus; on the other hand, you can rent a room with a family off campus.

    ; alternatively

    Students must take final exams; otherwise, they will receive a grade of Incomplete
  10. To add an explanation

    in other  words
    that is
    Some cultures are matriarchal; in other words, the mothers are the head of the family.

    ; that  is,
  11. To make a stronger statement

     in fact 
    indeed
    Mangoes are a very common fruit; indeed, people eat more mangoes than any other fruit in the world.

    ; in fact,

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