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317 Mild Mental Retardation
IQ level 50-55 to approximately 70
318.0 Moderate Mental Retardation
IQ level 35-40 to 50-55
318.1 Severe Mental Retardation
IQ level 20-25 to 35-40
318.2 Profound Mental Retardation
IQ level below 20 or 25
319 Mental Retardation, Severity Unspecified
Person's intelligence is untestable by standard tests (e.g., with individuals too impaired or uncooperative, or with infants)
317 Mild Mental Retardation (defined)
This group constitutes the larges segement. People with this level typically develop social and communication skills during the preschool years, have minimal impairment in sensorimotor areas, and often are not distinguishable from children without MR until a later age. Can acquire academic skills up to approximately the sixth-grade level. During their adult years, they usually achieve social and vocation skills adequate for minimum self-support, but may need supervision, guidance, and assistance. Can usually live successfully in the community, either independently or in supervised setting.
318.0 Moderate Mental Retardation (defined)
Acquire communication skills during early childhood years. They profit from vocational training and, with moderate supervision, can attend to their personal care. They can also benefit from training in social and occupational skills but are unlikely to progress beyond the second-grade level in academic subjects. They may learn to travel independently in familiar places. During adolescence, their difficulties recognizing social conventions may interfere with peer relationships. In their adult years, the majority are able to perform unskilled or semiskilled work under supervision in sheltered workshops or in the general workforce. They adapt well to life in the community, usually in supervised settings.
318.1 Severe Mental Retardation (defined)
During the early childhood years, they acquire little or no communicative speech. During the school-age period, they may learn to talk and can be trained in elementary self-care skills. They profit to only a limited extent from instruction in pre-academic subjects, such as familiarity with the alphabet and simple counting, but can master skills such as learning sight reading of some "survival" words. In their adult years, they may be able to perform simple tasks in closely supervised settings.
318.2 Profound Mental Retardation (defined)
During the early childhood yeaers, they display considerable impairments in sensorimotor functioning. Optimal development may occur in a highly structured environment with constant aid and supervision and an individualized relationship with a caregiver. Motor development and self-care and communication skills amy improve if appropriate training is provided. Some can perform simple tasks in closely supervised and sheltered settings.
Associated descriptive features and mental disorders.
No specific personality and behavioral features are uniquely associated with MR. Some individuals with MR are passive, placid, and dependent, wheras others can be aggressive and impulsive. Lack of communication skills may predispose to disruptive and aggressive behaviiors that substitute for communicative language.
refers to how effectively individuals cope with common life demands and how well they meet the standards of personal independence expected of someone in their particular age group, sociocultural background, and community setting. Adaptive functioning may be influenced by various factors, including education, motivation, personality characteristics, social and vocational opportunities, and the mental disorders and general medical conditions that may coexist with MR.
Borderline Intellectual Functioning
Describes an IQ that is higher than that for MR (generally 71-84). This group comprises about seven percent of the general population that falls into an are of delayed intellectual, emotional, and/or adaptive functioning that teeters on the edge of intellectual disability but does not actually qualify. For school age persons, the condition manifests itself in poor academic performance, lack of attention to tasks, and behavioral problems, which may stem from frustrastion and emotional immaturity.
Dissability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.
A group of disorders that can involve brain and nervous system functions, such as movement, learning, hearing, seeing, and thinking. There are several different types of cerebral palsy, including spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic, hypotonic, and mixed.
Spastic cerebral palsy
- Muscles that are very tight and do not stretch. They may tighten up even more over time.
- Abnormal walk (gait): arms tucked in toward the sides, knees crossed or touching, legs make "scissors" movements, walk on the toes.
- Joints are tight and do not open up all the way (called joint contracture).
- Muscle weakness or loss of movement in a group of muscles (paralysis).
- The symptoms may affect one arm or leg, one side of the body, both legs, or both arms and legs.
Ataxic Cerebral Palsy
Depth perception and balance are affected by ataxic cerebral palsy. People with ataxic CP have difficulty with coordination; some must walk by planting their feet an unusual distance apart. Quick movements are difficult. So are activities which require precision movements, such as putting a coin in a slot.Some people with ataxic cerebral palsy experience a symptom called an intention tremor. This means that when they are deliberately reaching for something their hand or hands begin to tremble. The tremble worsens the nearer they come to the object they are reaching for.Ataxic cerebral palsy can cause mental retardation, but generally intelligence is unaffected by this form of CP. All forms of CP can sometimes affect vision and/or hearing.
Hypotonic Cerebral Palsy
People with hypotonic cerebral palsy have noticeably “floppy” muscles and no control of their head. The arms and legs hang down like a “rag doll.” Joints may be lax. Reflexes may be poor. Walking is difficult.The condition causes posture problems and may cause breathing and swallowing difficulties. Speech may be difficult. The intelligence is usually unaffected.
A brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures (convulsions) over time. Seizures are episodes of disturbed brain activity that cause changes in attention or behavior. Symptoms vary from person to person. Some people may have simple staring spells, while others have violent shaking and loss of alertness. The type of seizure depends on the part of the brain affected and cause of epilepsy.Most of the time, the seizure is similar to the previous one. Some people with epilepsy have a strange sensation (such as tingling, smelling an odor that isn't actually there, or emotional changes) before each seizure. This is called an aura.
Common physical signs include: Decreased muscle tone at birth, excess skin at the nape of the neck, flattened nose, separated joints between the bones of the skull (sutures), single crease in the palm of the hand, small ears, small mouth, upward slanting eyes, wide, short hands with short fingers, white spots on the colored part of the eye (Brushfield spots).
Physical development is often slower than normal. Most children with Down syndrome never reach their average adult height.Children may also have delayed mental and social development. Common problems may include: impulsive behavior, poor judgment, short attention span, and slow learning
Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition involving changes in part of the X chromosome. It is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability (mental retardation) in boys.
Behavior problems associated with fragile X syndrome include: delay in crawling, walking, or twisting; hand clapping or hand biting; hyperactive or impulsive behavior; mental retardation; speech and language delay; tendency to avoid eye contact.
Physical signs may include: flat feet, flexible joints and low muscle tone, large body size, large forehead or ears with a prominent jaw, long face, soft skin. Some of these problems are present at birth, while others may not develop until after puberty.