Medieval Art (part 3)

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Medieval Art (part 3)
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2012-10-01 02:15:24
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Medieval Art (part 3)
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    • Saint Étienne, Caen
    • Era: Romanesque, 1067
    • Location: France
    • Techniques:
    • Vikings - called Normans in France - started tradition of symbolism of holy trinity in architecture
    • Exterior
    •    - divided into 3 vertical registers that represent the holy trinity - seperated by 4 large butresses
    •    - 3 registers horizontally, 3 windows in grouping, 3 portals
    •    - tower windows get larger as they go up the tower - optical illusion to make the towers seem taller
    •   - 3 registers of windows in eeach tower
    • 3 ailse church
    • 2 aisle in one bay
    • alternating support system
    • sexpartite vaults - 6 part bay - rib in middle of groin - compresses the ceiling - walls go taller and can be closer
    • X of groin is also ribbed- compound piers - engaged half columns
    • reduction in wall mass due to more arches
    • clerestory windows
    • 3 part elevation with nave, tribune, and clerestory windows
    • columns separate clerestory windows
    • Durham Cathedral
    • Era: Romanesque, 1093
    • Location: Durham, England
    • Techniques:
    • tall and slender proportions
    • sitting on a cliff
    • first building originally designed to have 7 part vaulted ceiling - squeezing ceiling
    • clear skeletal structure serves to lessen the density
    • bays are slightly larger than crossing - rectangular bays
    • Interior
    •    - multicolored stones
    •    - clustered columns to piers moving up into ceiling
    •    - patterned ribs and columns
    •    - abstract designs, diamonds, cable patterns or chevron patterns, originally painted design as well
    •    - alternating ornamented pillar and compound pier
    •    - between every large rib are two cross groins
    •    - ribs are slightly pointed
    •    - alternating support system
    • higher and taller than earlier ones
    • Durham Cathedral
    • Era: Romanesque, 1093
    • Location: Durham, England
    • Techniques:
    • tall and slender proportions
    • sitting on a cliff
    • first building originally designed to have 7 part vaulted ceiling - squeezing ceiling
    • clear skeletal structure serves to lessen the density
    • bays are slightly larger than crossing - rectangular bays
    • Interior
    •    - multicolored stones
    •    - clustered columns to piers moving up into ceiling
    •    - patterned ribs and columns
    •    - abstract designs, diamonds, cable patterns or chevron patterns, originally painted design as well
    •    - alternating ornamented pillar and compound pier
    •    - between every large rib are two cross groins
    •    - ribs are slightly pointed
    •    - alternating support system
    • higher and taller than earlier ones
    • Durham Cathedral
    • Era: Romanesque, 1093
    • Location: Durham, England
    • Techniques:
    • tall and slender proportions
    • sitting on a cliff
    • first building originally designed to have 7 part vaulted ceiling - squeezing ceiling
    • clear skeletal structure serves to lessen the density
    • bays are slightly larger than crossing - rectangular bays
    • Interior
    •    - multicolored stones
    •    - clustered columns to piers moving up into ceiling
    •    - patterned ribs and columns
    •    - abstract designs, diamonds, cable patterns or chevron patterns, originally painted design as well
    •    - alternating ornamented pillar and compound pier
    •    - between every large rib are two cross groins
    •    - ribs are slightly pointed
    •    - alternating support system
    • higher and taller than earlier ones
    • Saint Sernin
    • Era: Romanesque, 1080-1120
    • Location: Toulousse, France
    • Techniques:
    • two towers never finished
    • Gothic floor plan that resembles the Latin cross
    • heavy block appearance of simple front facade
    • 5 aisle church, two on each side of nave
    • pilrgimage church - wider and longer for more pilgrims - most Romanesque churches were pilgrimage churches - increase length of nave and increase number of side aisle
    • focus on ambularoty and radiating chapels
    • 5 radiating chapels around ambulatory 4 more on transept
    • larger piers and thick walls
    • module system or square schematism model
    • bay is a section of nave - 2 bays is one crossing square
    • bay is a rectangle
    • tribune over inner aisles
    • aisles were overflow sections, obscure view of altar
    • each aisle has an X which denotes a groin vaulted ceiling
    • groin vaults in tribunes too - helps with pressure from giant nave - buttressing for the barrel vault of the nave
    • ribs in barrel vault of nave
    • engaged columns that lead from ribs to floor
    • heavy and dark structure - no clerestory windows
    • galleries had windows in outer aisle only
    • piers mark the corner of each bay - embellished with engaged half columns
    • each groin vault in aisle is seperated by a ribbed barrel vault
    • double lines indicate a rib on the plan
    • Pisa Cathedral or Duomo Pisa
    • Era: Romanesque, 1053-1272
    • Location: Pisa, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • 3 entrances alludes to Holy Trinity
    • heavy thick walls
    • 5 aisle church
    • symbolize power of God and prosperity of Pisa
    • coffered wooden ceiling
    • transept with crossing tower
    • more interior wall decoration
    • two-toned stones in galleries
    • rounded arhces
    • Pisa Cathedral or Duomo Pisa
    • Era: Romanesque, 1053-1272
    • Location: Pisa, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • 3 entrances alludes to Holy Trinity
    • heavy thick walls
    • 5 aisle church
    • symbolize power of God and prosperity of Pisa
    • coffered wooden ceiling
    • transept with crossing tower
    • more interior wall decoration
    • two-toned stones in galleries
    • rounded arhces
    • Baptistery of San Giovanni
    • Era: Romanesque
    • Location: Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • dedicated to St. John
    • reflects the significance of Florentines
    • entire community came to a baptism
    • domed octagon with elegant arcade
    • has bays each with 3 arches
    • multicolored marble creates more elegance and attempts to dematerialize the wallls
    • San Miniato al Monte
    • Era: Romanesque, 1062
    • Location: Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • exterior has 3 entrances
    • 2 colored stones
    • very geometric design
    • Interior
    •    - wooden ceiling
    •    - longitudinal supports with beams with multicolored designs
    •    - diaphragm arches, divide the nave into 3 equal compartments
    •    - thin walls
    •    - 1 compound pier, two simple columns
    •    - alternating support systems
    •    - Roman revival of compound capitals
    • San Miniato al Monte
    • Era: Romanesque, 1062
    • Location: Florence, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • exterior has 3 entrances
    • 2 colored stones
    • very geometric design
    • Interior
    •    - wooden ceiling
    •    - longitudinal supports with beams with multicolored designs
    •    - diaphragm arches, divide the nave into 3 equal compartments
    •    - thin walls
    •    - 1 compound pier, two simple columns
    •    - alternating support systems
    •    - Roman revival of compound capitals
    • Christ in Majesty, St. Sernin
    • Artist: Bernardus Gelduinus
    • Era: Romanesque, 1096
    • Location: Toulousse, France
    • Techniques
    • made of marble
    • ambulatory of St. Sernin
    • emulates the repousse technique - buldge in knee, buldging abdomen, and shoulder popping through
    • flattened space - tops of feet
    • stylized drapery
    • head is in high relief- nimbus behind head
    • 4 evangelists in symbolic form in the corners
    • highly polished marble, gloss that resemble metal work or ivory
    • mandorla - sign of divinity
    • left hand on open book - "pax vobis" - peace be on to you
    • 2 fingers pointing up represent him as teacher
    • sharply incisies lines
    • ornamentation on mandrola is similar to metalwork, very detailed
    • Creation and Temptation of Adam and Eve 
    • Era: Romanesque, 1100
    • Location: Cathedral of Modena, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • attempted recession into space through different levels of relief
    • stylized facial features-
    • acking naturalism in bodies
    • static movement
    • Christ is on far left in mandorla as a teacher with a book
    • high relief - creates high play of light and shadow
    • rounded arcade in background
    • highly decorative arch emulates metal work
    • stylized patterns and drawn-on folds, incised lines, direction of folds is regulated
    • at entrance, above doorway - reminder of man's original sin and that salvation is only achieved through Christian church
    • one of the first fully developed narrative reliefs in Romanesque art
    • Tympanumn of St. Pierre
    • Era: Romanesque, 1115-1135
    • Location: Moissac, France
    • Techniques:
    • Christ is flanked by four evangelists
    • kings around him, all their heads are turned towards Christ
    • flanked by 2 angels holding scrolls that list's everyone's deeds
    • kings hold musical instrument
    • jambs are scallop-shaped
    • wavy lines divide the kings in to three tiers and represent clouds
    • angels are in a cross legged dancing pose
    • elder's heads are hinged for movement - moissac style
    • dove-tailed folds
    • band-like torsos
    • wide cheek bones
    • hands turned back in towards body
    • contrast of energy between kings and Christ
    • inspire fear in sinners
    • second coming of Christ
    • The Prophet Jeremiah
    • Era: Romanesque, 1115-1130
    • Location: St. Pierre, Moissac, France
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • side of trumeau
    • approx. life size
    • holding a scroll where his prophetic vision is written
    • iconographically paring old and new testament themes - he is below Christ
    • elongated figure
    • cross legged dance position
    • movement represents the passionate nature of his soul
    • rounded legs and body- undulating form of body and drapery which mimics the scalloped edging of the jambs
    • folds are drawn on - flowing lines similar to manuscript illuminations
    • serpentine locks of hair that frame his face - capture dreamy mystical look in eyes - receiving prophetic vision
    • interlaced lions - linked to Richard the Lion Heart
    • lions were the churches protectors
    • Tympanum of St. Lazare
    • Artist: Gislebertus
    • Era: Romanesque, 1120-1135
    • Location: Autun, France
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • four trumpet blowing angels
    • Christ in mandorla
    • Christ is separated and seated and is dividing the damned and the blessed souls
    • on our left are the blessed souls and on our right is Hell
    • arms are open as he is taking all the souls in
    • background is deeply drilled
    • patterned folds on garment and symmetrical
    • surrounded by four evangelists
    • lintel below him - dead rising to be judged
    • inscription of artist's name below Chrit's feet - request to pray for his salvation on judgement day
    • two men carrying bags inscribed with cross and shell - symbols of pilgrims who go to Jerusalem and Santiago de Compostana
    • 3 figures begging angels to save them but angel points to Christ, the only judge
    • weighing souls in hell
    • demons have thin bodies , insect-like
    • second coming of Christ
    • visual representation of an intangible god, manifestation of the divine
    • developed after turn of millennium
    • Purpose
    •    - warn people and inspire and reassure people that Christ and the church is there for them
    •    - reminds viewer of teaching of scripture
    •    - reinforces the importance of a pilgrimage as a devotional act and part of life's journey
    •    - tympanum is am entryway to the celestial Jerusalem symbolized by the church
    •    - separates the mundane world from the spiritual mysteries inside
    •    - scares sinners into leaving
    •    - inscription "may this terror terrify those who earthly error binds for the horror of these images here in this manner truly depicts what will be" reinforces fear
    • The Ascension of Christ and the Mission of the Apostles
    • Era: Romanesque, 1120-1132
    • Location: La Madeline, Vezelay, France
    • Techniques:
    • inside narthex
    • wavy line are the holy spirit coming off Christ and going to apostles
    • goals of apostles
    •    - save or condemn souls
    •    - preach the gospel to all nations
    •    - heal the sick and drive you the devil
    • more realistically seated
    • stylized folds, flat garment
    • quick rhythm in drapery and spinning whirls - conveying spiritual light
    • protruding large nimbus behind him
    • archivolts hold scene of saving and condemning
    • other archivolts are signs of the zodiac and symbols of the season, and works of the month, in medallions
    • lintel - objects of the apostles' missions
    • Christ looms above human misery and deformity
    • presents church as road to salvation
    • church at Vezelay most closely associated with Crusades
    • Portals and West Facade, St. Trophime
    • Era: Romanesque, late 12th century
    • Location: Arles, France
    • Techniques:
    • projecting portal that is like a roman arch
    • frieze above free standing columns
    • figures in high relief between columns, Classical statuary
    • strictly Christian subject matter
    • Christ is clearly sitting, projecting knees
    • elaborate garment, each layer has a different length
    • crown represents a celestial and an earthly king
    • surrounded by 4 evangelists in symbolic form
    • lintel has 12 apostles, part of frieze, part of story of last judgement
    • Christ's right is saved and Christ's left is damned
    • sculpture between jambs
    • influenced by Classical
    • undercut folds
    • windblown drapery
    • elongated figures
    • agitated poses and gestures
    • Norman Cavalry Charging in the Battle of Hastings
    • Era: Romaesque, 1070-1080
    • Location: Bayeux Tapestry
    • Techniques
    • embroidered wool on linen
    • continuous narration
    • commission by bishop Odo, half brother of William the Conqueror
    • possibly done by wife Mathilda, first large scale art piece done by a woman
    • Battle of Hastings united England and most of France under one rule
    • border filled with sections of animals or with dead or wounded
    • horses have twisting necks and contorted bodies
    • linear patterning
    • flat sections of color
    • larger figures in center
    • diagonal lines in borders signal the end of an event
    • stylized trees separate scenes
    • embroiedered Latin text- compare to Trajan Column - conquerors version of history, represents national pride, showcases all the events that took place
    • hand of god points to West Minister Abbey, location of coronation of every English monarch
    • 1'8" tall by 229'8" long
    • Moses Expounding the Law
    • Era: Romanesque, 1135
    • Location: Bury Bible, Bury St. Edmunds, England
    • Techniques:
    • ink and tempera on vellum
    • found in wealthy abbeys
    • symmetrical leaf motif with harmonized colors in the border
    • border limits the function of the figures
    • top scene is Moses and Aaron proclaiming the law of the Bible
    • Moses' "horns" are divine rays of light
    • patterned drapery - creating volume with ladder-like folds
    • almond shaped eyes
    • gestures as a pantomime of ideas - Moses is pointing out the clean edible animals
    • gestures are slow and gentle, quiet dignity
    • Eadwine the Scribe
    • Artist: The Scribe Eadwine
    • Era: Romanesque, 1160-1170
    • Location: Canterbury Psalter
    • Techniques:
    • ink and tempera on vellum
    • not a specific likeness of monk, type
    • described himself as a "prince among scribes"
    • signed his own work as a prayer for his salvation
    • drapery falls more softly
    • whorls in shoulders
    • architectural, throne like seat
    • inside an architectural scene- multilobed arch with two columns on side
    • rounded and rhythmic

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