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2012-09-27 19:17:59
vet tech chemistry matter energy set

vet tech chemistry matter and energy set
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  1. Boiling
    the formation od bubbles of gas throughout a liquid
  2. Boiling point (bp)
    the temperature at which a liquid changes to gas (boils) and gas changes to liquid (condenses)
  3. Calorie (cal)
    the amount of heat energy that raises the temperature of exactly 1 g of water exactly 1 deg C
  4. Change of state
    • the transformation of one state of matter to another
    • ex. solid to liquid, liquid to solid, liquid to gas
  5. Chemical change
    • a change during which the original substance is converted into a new substance that has a different composition and new chemical and physical properties
    • ways to determine:
    • - color change
    • - gas being produced (not just boiling, e.g. Alka-seltzer in water)
    • - heat given off or taken in
    • -- e.g. calcium chloride in water is physical change as can be gotten back by boiling off water
    • -- e.g. hand warmer - NaCl & Fe filings react to give off heat
    • - precipitation (solid forming)
  6. Chemical properties
    the properties that indicate the ability of a substance to change into a new substance
  7. Compound
    a pure substance consisting of two or more elements, with a definite composition, that can be broken down into simpler substances only by chemical methods
  8. Condensation
    the change of state of a gas to a liquid
  9. Cooling curve
    a diagram that illustrates temperature changes and changes of state for a substance as heat is removed
  10. Deposition
    • the change of a gas directly into a solid
    • the reverse of sublimation
  11. Element
    a pure substance containing only one type of matter, which cannot be broken down by chemical methods
  12. Energy
    the ability to do work
  13. Energy (caloric) value
    the kilocalories (or kilojoules) obtained per gram of food types: carbohydrate, fat and protein
  14. Evaporation
    the formation of a gas (vapor) by the escape of high-energy molecules from the surface of a liquid
  15. Freezing
    the change of state from a liquid to a solid
  16. Freezing point (fp)
    the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid (freezes) or a solid changes to a liquid (melts)
  17. Gas
    a state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
  18. Heat
    • the energy associated with the motion of particles in a substance
    • the transfer of kinetic energy from a high temperature substance to a lower temperature
    • measured in:
    • - calories
    • - kilocalories = 1 food Calorie = 1,000 calorie
    • - Joules
    • - BTU (British Thermal Unit) - amount of energy needed to raise 1 pound of water at 1 deg F = 252 cal
  19. Heat of fusion
    • the energy required to melt exactly 1 g of a substance at its melting point
    • for water:
    • - 80 cal (334 J) are needed to melt 1 g of ice
    • - 80 cal (334 J) are released when 1 g of water freezes
  20. Heat of vaporization
    • the energy required to vaporize exactly 1 g of a substance at its boiling point
    • for water:
    • - 540 cal (2260 J) are needed to vaporize 1 g of liquid
    • - 1 g of steam gives off 540 cal (2260 J) when it condenses
  21. Heating curve
    a diagram that shows the temperature changes and changes of state of a substance as it is heated
  22. Joule (J)
    • the SI unit of heat energy
    • 4.184 J = 1 cal
    • 1 J = 0.239 cal
    • volts * amps * time
  23. Kinetic energy
    • the energy of moving particles
    • energy due to motion
  24. Liquid
    a state of matter that takes the shape of its container, but has a definite volume
  25. Matter
    • the material that makes up a substance
    • has mass
    • occupies space
  26. Melting
    the change of state from a solid to a liquid
  27. Melting point (mp)
    • the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid (melts).
    • the same temperature as the freezing point
  28. Mixture
    the physical combination of 2 or more substances that does not change the identities of the mixed substances
  29. Physical change
    change in which the physical properties of a substance changes but its identity stays the same
  30. Physical properties
    the properties that can be observed or measured without affecting the identity of the substance
  31. Potential energy
    • a type of energy related to position or composition of a substance
    • stored energy due to:
    • - position, e.g. rock at top of mountain
    • - condition, e.g. wound spring
    • - chemical composition, e.g.
  32. Pure substance
    a type of matter composed of elements and compounds that has a definite composition
  33. Solid
    a state of matter that has its own shape and volume
  34. Specific Heat
    • a quantity of heat that changes the temperature of exactly 1 g of a substance by exactly 1 deg C
    • change in kinetic energy
  35. States of matter
    • 3 forms of matter:
    • - solid
    • - liquid
    • - gas
  36. Sublimation
    the change of state in which a solid is transformed directly to a gas without forming a liquid first
  37. Temperature
    • a measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
    • measured in:
    • - Celsius - relative temperature scale
    • - Fahrenheit - relative temperature scale
    • - Kelvin - absolute temperature scale