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A tentative explanation based on observations
An observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated
States a measurable relationship
Tested explanation of basic natural phenomena
the quantity of matter in a material
Law of Conservation of Mass
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed during a normal chemical reaction.
What is the difference between mass and weight?
Weight depends on gravity
Have a fixed shape and fixed volume
Have a fixed volue but not a fixed shape
Do not have a fixed volume or shape
A change in which the chemical composition of the sample does not change
A change in which the chemical composition of the sample changes. (new matter)
characteristics of a material that can be observed without changing the substance (its chemical identity)
characteristic of a material which is evident when the material undergoes a chemical change.
a pure substance that cannot be broken down any further by chemical means.
oxygen, mercury, sulfur
A combination of more than one element that can be broken down further by chemical reations.
a mixture in which the properties vary within a sample
a mixture in which the properties are constant throughout the sample.
How close the measurements are to one another
Closeness of a measurement ot its true value
measurements cannot be exact
digits in a mesurement that include all certain digits plus a finial digit with some uncertainty.
Rules to significant digits
- non-zero significant
- confined zeros significant
- leading zeros not significant
- trailing zeros significant with decimal
- if next digit is >5 round up
- if next digit is <5 round down
- if next digit is =5 round to nearest even number
Adding and Subtracting Sig Figs
- Last common place that each number has
- Round answer to place of least sig fig
Multiplying and Dividing with Sig Figs
Look at the number of sig fig in all values; report the fewest number of sig fig in answer
exponential notation where there is exactly one non-zero digit the the left of the decimal
positive <- decimal -> negative
Base units of metric system
- length -> meter -> m
- mass -> gram -> g
- volume -> liter -> L
- time -> second -> s
Measurement staircase and rules
- tera, giga, mega, kilo base
- deci, centi, milli, micro, nano, pico
up stair divide by 10, down stair multiply by 10
Tf = (9/5) Tc + 32.000 F
Tk = Tc + 273.15
Length * Width * Height
Common conversions with liters