Surgical Terminology.txt

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Surgical Terminology.txt
2012-10-08 22:30:56
Surgical Terminology

Surgical Terminology
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  1. Acute
    Acute refers to having rapid onset, severe symptoms, and a short course.  Acute is the opposite of Chronic.
  2. Anastomosis
    Anastomosis is a surgical connection between two structures. This usually means a connection between tubular structures, such as blood vessels or loops of intestines.
  3. Ascites
    Ascites is the accumulation of fluid (usually serous fluid) in the peritoneal cavity.  Ascitis fluid can have many sources such as liver disease, cancers, congestive heart failure, or kidney failure.
  4. Benign
    Benign means not malignant and of no danger to health, especially relating to a tumorous growth.
  5. Biopsy
    A biopsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue for laboratory examination.
  6. Bipolar
    Bipolar pertains to the use of two poles in electrotherapeutic treatments.
  7. Bougie
    A bougie is a catheter which varies in size and is placed in the esophagus transorally. Its purpose is to temporarily dilate the esophagus during the gastric fundus wrap of a Nissen Fundoplication procedure, thus preventing a constricting wrap.
  8. Calculus
    A calculus is usually composed of mineral salts and can occur in the kidneys, ureters, bladder or urethra.
  9. Cauterization
    Cauterization is the use of heat or caustic chemicals to destroy tissues or close minute bleeding vessels.
  10. Cavity
    A Cavity is a hollow place or space, or a potential space, within the body or one of its organs.  Examples are: abdominal cavity, cranial cavity, pelvic cavity, peritoneal cavity, and thoracic cavity. 
  11. Chronic
    Chronic designates a disease showing little change or of slow progression.  Chronic is the opposite of Acute.
  12. Cyst
    A cyst is a closed sac- or bladder-like structure that is not a normal part of the tissue where it is found.  Cysts are common and can occur anywhere in the body in people of any age.
  13. Desiccation
    Desiccation is the drying out of tissue by means of a high frequency current.
  14. Desufflation
    Desufflation is the release of air or gas out of a cavity.
  15. Diathermy
    Diathermy is the use of high frequency current to generate or produce heat in the deeper tissues of the body for therapeutic purposes.
  16. Dilation
    Dilation is the stretching or opening of a narrow tube, channel or hollow organ.
  17. Dissect
    Dissect means to separate tissues along their natural lines of separation from each other.
  18. Diverticulum
    Diverticulum is an abnormal sac-like pouch projecting from a defect in the wall of a tube or cavity.
  19. Dysphagia
    Dysphagia is the inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing.
  20. Edema
    Edema is the excessive accumulation of serous fluid in body tissue.
  21. Excise
    Excise means to cut out or remove surgically.
  22. Fulgeration
    Fulgeration is the destruction of soft tissue (usually malignant tumors) by means of a high frequency electric current applied with a needle-like electrode.
  23. Fundoplication
    Fundoplication is the surgical reduction of the size of the opening of the stomach fundus and suturing the previously removed end of the esophagus to it.  This procedure is used to treat reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus.
  24. GERD
    GERD is an acronym for gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  25. Heartburn
    Heartburn is a burning sensation in the chest that can extend to the neck, throat, and face; it is worsened by bending or lying down. It is the primary symptom of gastroesophageal reflux, which is the movement of stomach acid into the esophagus.
  26. Hemorrage
    A hemorrhage is excessive discharge of blood from the blood vessels.
  27. Hemostasis
    Hemostasis is the stoppage of bleeding or hemorrhage or the stoppage of blood flow through a blood vessel or body part.
  28. Hyperplasia
    Hyperplasia (or "hypergenesis") is a general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue beyond that which is ordinarily seen (e.g. constantly dividing cells).  Hyperplasia may result in the gross enlargement of an organ, the formation of a benign tumor, or may be visible only upon histological analysis with a microscope.
  29. Incise
    Incise means to cut into with a sharp instruction (in other words, make an incision).
  30. Incotinence
    Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary evacuation of urine or feces.
  31. Inflammation
    Inflammation is redness and swelling of a body part generally related to or resulting from infection.
  32. Insufflation
    Insufflation is the introduction of a vapor or gas into a cavity.
  33. Ipsilateral
    Ipsilateral means on the same side or affecting the same side of the body.  For example, the left arm is ipsilateral to the left leg.
  34. Irrigation
    Irrigation is the washing or cleansing of a cavity or a passage by means of a stream of liquid.
  35. Jaundice
    Jaundice is a condition characterized by yellowness of skin, whites of eyes, mucous membranes, and body fluids resulting from excess bilirubin in the blood.  It may be caused by obstruction of bile passageways, excess destruction of red blood cells, or disturbances in function of liver cells.
  36. Laparoscopy
    Laparoscopy is a broad term that describes looking into the abdomen through a scope.
  37. Lavage
    Lavage is the cleansing irrigation of an organ or cavity.
  38. Lesion
    A lesion is a localized pathological change in a bodily organ or tissue.
  39. Ligate/Ligation
    Ligate means to place a constricting tie, generally done to control bleeding.  Ligation is the procedure for tying off a vessel or duct with a ligature.
  40. Ligature
    A ligature is any material, such as thread or wire, used for tying a blood vessel or to constrict a body structure.
  41. Lumen
    Lumen is the space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube.
  42. Malignant
    Malignant is a term generally referring to tumors indicating their tendency to spread and invade neighboring or distant parts of the body.
  43. Mobilize
    Mobilize means to make moveable, to free up a structure to be repositioned or removed by freeing attachments, ligaments, and/or blood vessels and ducts.
  44. Monopolar
    Monopolar means using one terminal only.  In monopolar electrosurgery, the active electrode is in the surgical site. The patient return electrode is somewhere else on the patient’s body.
  45. Morcellate
    Morcellate means to remove piece by piece.
  46. Necrosis
    Necrosis is the local death of body tissue.  It is caused by external factors, such as infection, toxins, or trauma.
  47. Occlude
    Occlude means to close up or join together.
  48. Patent
    Patent means open or unobstructed, particularly referring to a tube or duct.
  49. Pedunculated
    Pedunculated means having a pedicle or stem.
  50. Perforation
    Perforation is the act or process of making a hole, such as that caused by ulceration.
  51. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (also known as PID)
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (also known as PID) is an ascending infection from the vagina or cervix to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and broad ligaments.
  52. Pneumoperitoneum
    Pneumoperitoneum is a condition in which air or gas (such as CO2) is introduced into the peritoneal cavity to aid in laparoscopic visualization.
  53. Polyp
    Polyps are a type of tumor generally protruding into a body cavity (such as the colon) from a narrow base.  Polyps are usually benign.
  54. Prolapse
    Prolapse is the abnormal dropping down of an organ from its usual position, particularly the uterus, kidney, or stomach.
  55. Prosthesis
    A prosthesis is an artificial organ or body part.
  56. Reflux
    Reflux refers to a return or backward flow.
  57. Resect
    Resect means to excise or remove all, or a large portion of an organ.
  58. Retraction
    Retraction means to hold back or restrain parts of organs which have been intentionally displaced away from the operative site.
  59. Roux-en-Y
    In French, Roux-en-Y means a Y in the road. In medical terminology, it refers to a division and reconnection of the small bowel forming an anastomotic intersection lower in the intestinal tract.  For example, gastric bypass surgery for obesity.
  60. Sessile
    Sessile means having a broad base as opposed to having a peduncle or stem, particularly as related to tumors.
  61. Stricture
    A stricture is a narrowing or constriction of the lumen of a tube, duct, or hollow organ such as the esophagus, ureter, or urethra.  Acquired strictures may result from infection, trauma, fibrosis resulting from mechanical or chemical irritation, muscular spasm, or pressure from adjacent structures or tumors. They may be temporary or permanent, depending on the cause.
  62. Thoracoscopy
    Thoracoscopy is a broad term that describes looking into the thoracic cavity through a scope.
  63. Transect
    Transect means to cut across tissue or an organ.
  64. Tympany
    Tympany is a hollow sound heard when the abdominal wall is tapped over the air-distended intestines or stomach, or when the peritoneal cavity has achieved pneumoperitoneum.
  65. Ulcer/Ulceration
    Ulceration refers to suppuration (which is pus formation) occurring on a free surface such as on the skin or on a mucous membrane to form an ulcer.
  66. Viscera
    Viscera refers to the internal organs enclosed within a cavity, especially the abdominal organs.