Unit 2

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Unit 2
2012-09-27 23:52:13

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
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  1. Daltons original theory's 4 major points
    • 1. Elements are composed of atoms
    • 2. Atoms of an element are identical/same properties
    • 3.Atoms of different elements combine and form compounds
    • 4. Atoms are not created, destroyed, or broken down by a chemical reation
  2. Law of Conservation of Mass
    Matter is not created or destroyed in a normal chemical reaction
  3. Law of Definite Proportions (constrant composition)
    a pure compound always contains definate or constant proportions of the elements by mass
  4. Law of Multiple Proportions
    If two elements form more than one compound then the ratio between the masses of the second element will be small whole numbers
  5. Atom Structure
    • Nucleus-protons(+) and neutrons(no charge)
    • Electrons (-)
  6. Mass Number
    The total number or protons and neutrons in a nucleus. protons never change, neutrons can change
  7. Atomic Number
    the number of protons in an atom/element. (periodic table)
  8. Isotopes
    Atoms of the same elements that have different number of neutrons in the nucleus
  9. Atomic Mass
    • listed on the periodic table is an average of all the isotopes of that element.
    • mass* abundace=amu (add both amu for isotopes together)
  10. Groups
    vertical colums containing elements with similar properties
  11. Periods
    horizontal rows in the periodic table
  12. Chemical formulas
    use chemical symbols and subscripts to express the number of atoms of each element in a compound
  13. Molecular compounds (covalent)
    • compounds formed of discrete, electrically neutral molecules which are formed by sharing electrons
    • 2 non-metals
  14. Ionic compounds
    compounds formed of large groups of electically charged particles called ions which are formed by tranferrint electrons from one atom to another
  15. Diatomic elements
    O2,  N2,  F2,  Cl2,  Br2,  I2,  H2
  16. Hydrates
    • compunds whose crystals contain water molecules in fixed ratios
    • ionic compund * # water
  17. Molecule
    several atoms covalently bound that travel as a set
  18. Formula unit
    lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic lattice
  19. Ionic
    • Binary ionic compoud-two elements (metal and non)
    • Ternary ionic compount- three elements (metal and polyatomic ion)
  20. Molecular
    Binary molecular compound-contains two elements (two nonmetals)
  21. Aqueous solution
    When a compound dissolves in water to give ions
  22. ACID
    • Binary acid- aqueous solution with two elements (hydrogen and nonmetal)
    • Ternary oxo acid-aqueous solution twith three elements (hydrogen, nonmetal, and oxygen)
  23. Ions-classification
    • Cations-positve
    • Anions-negative
    • monotomic
    • polyatomic
  24. Naming Metal Cations
    • One charge write the name of the parent metal follwed by the word "ion" (group 1,2, and Al in group three)
    • Multiple charge(transition) write the name of the parent metal followed by charge in roman numerals, then the word "ion"
    • Zinc & Silver no roman numeral
  25. Naming Nonmetal Anions
    Write the name of the nonmetal, drop the ending, add -ide, and the word "ion"
  26. Polyatomic Ion
    Oxo-anions are names using the root name and the suffixes -ate or -ite.

    -ate corresponds to one more oxygen than ite
  27. Polyatomic Ion-with hydrogen
    if 1 or 2 hydrogen's is in front of the ono-anions we add Hydrogen or dihydrogen to the anion name

    The charge is reduced by 1 for each H added.
  28. Polyatomic ions-Halogens
    • form more poly atomic ions, so we add hypo- and per-
    • per- and one oxygen to -ate
    • hypo- minus one oxygen to -ite
    • bromate, iodate, flurate
  29. Binary Molecular Compounds
    • two non-metals
    • greek prefixes
    • 1-mono, 2-di, 3-tri, 4-tetra, 5-penta, 6-hexa, 7-hepta, 8-octa, 9-nona, 10-deca
  30. Acids-binary acide
    -ide, change to ic and hydro- in front and acid

    Hydro         ic acid
  31. Acid-ternary oxoacids
    • -ate ions make ic acids
    • -ite ions make ous acid
  32. Chemical equations
    • Describes what happens when a chemical reaction occurs
    • reation -> products
  33. Balanced equations
    contain the same number of each type of atom on both sides of the equation