Ch3

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sdbarnes
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174013
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Ch3
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2012-09-27 22:44:42
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Ch3
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ch 3
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  1. Linnaeus hierarchical classification scheme
    Kingdom to class,order genus and species
  2. a group of related species
    genus
  3. Is the main process that increases the frequency of adaptive traits through time
    Natural selection
  4. The three operation of natural selection
    variation,heritability,and differential reproductive sucess
  5. every species is composed of a great variety of individuals,some of which are better adapted to their environment than others
    variation
  6. offspring inherit traits from their parents,at least to some degree and in some way
    heritability
  7. better-adapted individuals generally produce more offspring over the generations than poorer-adapted individuals, the frequency of adaptive traits gradually increases in subsequent generations
    differential reproductive
  8. greater reproductive success in a particular environment
    adaptive
  9. theory that disadvantageous traits will generally decline in frequency or even disapperar eventually
    maladaptive
  10. a particular trait seems to be positively favored and the average value shifts over time toward the adaptive trait
    directional selection
  11. the average value does not change,but natural selection removes the extremes
    normalizing selection
  12. occurs when a heterozyous(varied) combination of  alleles (genes) is positively favored
    balancing selection
  13. the allele of a gene pair that is always phenotypically expressed in the heterozygous form
    dominant
  14. an allele phenotypically suppressed in the heterozygous form and expressed only in the homozygous form
    recessive
  15. Genetic makeup
    genotype
  16. observable appearance
    phenotype
  17. Mendel's units of heredity were what we now call
    genes
  18. each member of a gene pair or group is called an
    allele
  19. if the two genes,or alleles for a trait are the same the organism is
    homozygous
  20. if the two genes for a characteristic differ the organism is
    heterozygous
  21. the genes of higher organisms are located on ropelike bodies called
    chromosomes
  22. cellular reproduction
    mitosis
  23. reproductive cells are formed
    meiosis
  24. deoxyribonucleic acid
    DNA
  25. direct the formation of proteins
    messenger RNA
  26. uses the information on the mRNA to make proteins
    Ribosome
  27. sorting of chromosomess in meiosis
    segregation
  28. the exchange of sections of chromosomes between one chromosome and another
    crossing-over
  29. change in the DNA sequence
    mutation
  30. various random processes that affect gene frequencies in small relatively isolated populations
    genetic drift
  31. the process whereby genes pass from one population to another through matching and reproduction
    gene flow
  32. the variation in gene freqency from one end of the region to the other is
    cline
  33. a population that consists of organisms able to interbreed and produce fertile and viable offsprings
    species
  34. the creation of a viable offspring from two different species, may be more possible than once thought
    hybridization
  35. the development of a new species may occur if one subgroup of a species finds itself in a radically different environment
    speciation

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