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2012-09-28 00:59:09
Research Methods

Intro to Research Methods
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  1. Overgeneralization
    When we unjustifiably conclude what is true for some cases is true for all.

    **We always draw conclusions about people and social processes from our own interactions with them, but sometimes we forget that our experiences are limited***
  2. Selective or Innacurate Observation
    Choosing to look only at things that are in line with our preferences or beliefs.

    **EX. If we are convinced that heavy internet users are antisocial, we can find many confirming instances. But what about online counseling or internet pen pals?
  3. Illogical Reasoning
    Prematurely jumping to conclusions or arguing on the basis of invalid assumptions.
  4. Resistance to Change
    Reluctance to change our ideas in light of new information.
  5. Exploratory Research
    Research that seeks to find out how people get along in the setting under question, what meanings they give to their actions, and what issues concern them. Goal is to learn "what is going on here?"
  6. Descriptive Research
    Research in which social phenomena are defined and described.
  7. Evaluative Research
    Research that describes or identifies the impact of social policies and programs.
  8. Measurement Validity
    Exists when an indicator measures wat we think it measures.

    **Without having measured what we think we have measured then we don't know what we are talking about.
  9. Generalizability
    The extent to which a study can inform us about persons, places, or events that were not directly studied.
  10. Sample Generalizability
    Exists when a conclusion based on a sample, or subset, of a larger population holds true for that population.
  11. Cross-Population Generalizability(external validity)
    Exists when findings about one group, population, or setting old true for other groups, populations, or settings.
  12. Casual Validity(internal validity)
    The truthfulness of an assertion that A causes B.
  13. Inductive Research
    Research in which general conclusions are drawn from specific data. Used with qualitative methods.
  14. Deductive Research
    Research in which a specific expectation is deduced from a general premise and is then tested.  Used with quantatative methods.
  15. Hypothesis
    A tentative statement about empirical reality involving a relationship between two or more variables.
  16. Variable
    A characteristic or property that can vary(take on different values or attributes).
  17. Cross-Sectional Research Design
    A study in which data are collected at only one point in time.
  18. Longitudinal Designs
    A study in which data are collected that can be ordered in time.  Also defined as research in which data are collected at two or more points in time.
  19. Trend Designs (repeated cross-sectional studies)
    A longitudinal study in which data are collected at two or more points in time from different samples of the samples of the same population.
  20. Panel Designs
    A longitudinal study in which data are collected from the same individuals--the panel-- at two or more points in time.
  21. Cohort Designs
    A longitudinal study in which data are collected at two or more points in time from individuals in a cohort(individuals or groups with a common starting point).
  22. Belmont Report
    Report in 1979 by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research stipulating 3 basic ethical principles for the protection of human subjects: respect for persons, beneficience, and justice.
  23. Justice
    Distributing benefits and risks of research fairly.
  24. Beneficence
    Minimizing possible harms and maximizing benefits.
  25. Respect for Persons
    Treating persons as autonomous agents and protecting those with diminished autonomy.
  26. Milgrim Experiment
    One of the most ethically controversial experiments in the history of social science. (1960s) Participants were placed as the teacher in the situation and were told to read the pairs to the learner.  After they were read once, the teacher then read them again and if the learner failed to answer correctly, he was delivered a shock.  The more answers the learner got wrong, the higher voltage the shock.  The study was to see how far participants were willing to go.  Even after hearing the learner say things like ouch, get me out of here, I told you I have heart problems.
  27. Operationalization
    The process of specifying the operations tat will indicate the value of cases on a variable.
  28. Nominal Level of Measurement
    Variables whose values have no mathematical interpretation; they vary in kind or quality but not in amount.
  29. Ordinal Level of Measurement
    A measurement of a variable in which the numbers indicating a variable's values specify only the order of the cases, permitting greater tan and less than distinctions.
  30. Interval Level of Measurement
    A measurement of a variable in which the number's indicating a variable's values represent fixed measurement units but have no absolute, or fixed, zero point.
  31. Ratio Level of Measurement
    Measurement of a variable in which the numbers indicating the variable's values represent fixed measuring units and an absolute zero point.
  32. Indicator
    A single question.