Lab Notes-Sunday Handout

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Lab Notes-Sunday Handout
2012-09-28 01:49:46

Lab Notes-Sunday Handout
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  1. Cell Membrane
    Separates the cell from the surounding enviornment and controsl what enters and leaves.
  2. Cytoplasm/Cytosol
    thick gel like substances inside the the cell, composed of numerous organlles suspended in watery cytosol.
  3. nuclues
    large membrane structure near the center of the cell (contains  DNA) 
  4. nucleolus
    non membraneous body; synthesis RNA
  5. nuclear envelope
    surounds the nucleus
  6. ribosomes
    protien factory, a protein that makes protiens usually for export.
  7. Golgi Apparatus
    responsible for processing and packing of protiens
  8. centriole
    small cylinder shaped organelles, near the nucleus, it divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis.
  9. peroxisome
    detoxifies harmful susbtances, i.e. alcohol, major function is the breakdown of fatty acids through beta-oxidation.
  10. mitochondria
    the power plant of the cell, depending of the role of the cell it can have one or many mitochondria- main function catabolism, ATP synthesis. 
  11. lysosomes
    bags of digestive enzymes break down defective cell parts and ingested particles (a cells digestive system
  12. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    synthesizes certain lips and carbs, also removes and stores CA++ from the cells interior
  13. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    protien synthesis and intercellular transportation of protiens (a cells highway)
  14. micorvilli
    hair like cell extension, responsible of absortion, found in small intestines and other  epithelial cells.
  15. Amphipathic lipids
    molecules that have both hydrophopic and hydophilic parts. they for a stable selective premeable lipid barrier between aqueos compartments within and bewteen cells.
  16. Osmosis
    The difussion of water through a selectively premeable membrane in the presence of at least one impremeant solute (involves both simple and channel mediated diffusion)
  17. Simple Diffusion
    Molecules that can pass directly through the membrane's phopholipid bilayers or through channels from an area of high concentation to low concentration - down a gradient
  18. facilitated diffusion/mediated passive transport
    diffusion of particles through a membrane channel/carrier structure in the membran (moving down a concentration gradient).
  19. active transports (primary vs secondary)
    1. Pump- carry out transport process in which cellular energy is used to move molecules from a low to high gradient of concentration

    Vesicles- carrys large groups of molecules in or out of the cell by means of a vesicle.- it is diff than pump because they allow to leave cell without crossing the plasma membrane
  20. Endocytosis
    the plasma membrane traps some extracellular material and brings it into the cell that pinches off to form a an intracellular vesicle; type of vesicle-mediated transport.

    • They are two forms
    • phagocytosis: cell eating (cells or other large particles)
    • pinocytosis: cell drinking (fluid, disolved molecules )
  21. Hypotonic
    less pressure to the intracellular fluid, in other words more water, osmosis will always want to move from hypotonic to hypertonic solution
  22. Hypertonic
    higher pressure to the intracellular fluid. that means that the cell will shrivel because the water will be trying to towards that more contcentrated area.
  23. Isotonic
    same osomotic pressure
  24. Effects of Osmosis on a cell