A&P Test 2

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hdemeter01
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174070
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A&P Test 2
Updated:
2012-09-28 02:26:17
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anatomy physiology second test
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A&P Test 2
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  1. basic unit of life
    cell
  2. surrounds the whole cell, decides what goes in & out-made of phospholipid
    plasma membrane
  3. what contains organelles?
    cytoplasma
  4. holds chromosomes (genetic information)
    nucleus
  5. site of ATP synthesis
    mitochondria
  6. Site of protein synthesis
    ribosomes
  7. in the cytoplasma by themselves, makes protein for that cell only
    free ribosomes
  8. endoplasmic reticulum, makes protein for another part of the body
    attached ribosomes
  9. what is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
    fold proteins
  10. ribosomes attached, folds proteins to be shipped
    rough endoplasmic reticulum
  11. makes lipids
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  12. takes stuff in, packages it into vesticle, ships protein out of the cell
    golgi apparatus
  13. destroys anything we don't want in the cell
    lysome
  14. neutrolizes free radicals
    peroxisomes
  15. how do peroxisomes neutralize free radicals?
    turn free radicals into H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) then pulls it apart for oxygen and water
  16. how do things enter and exit the plasma membrane?
    goes through the membrane or a doorway
  17. what is the plasma membrane composed of?
    phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins
  18. type of protein that goes all the way through the protein channel
    intrinsic proteins
  19. type of proteins that go outside the membrane
    extrinsic
  20. what are channel proteins?
    those who can pass through the membrane
  21. type of channel that is freely moving, always open (as long as right thing is trying to go through it) think tunnel
    nongated ion channels
  22. type of channel that is closed untilĀ somethingĀ happens, think turnpike
    gated ion channel
  23. lock & key type channel -must fit to bind and open door
    ligand gated
  24. channel- electricity message must be recieved to open
    voltage gated
  25. hairs on surface of cell used to move stuff
    cilia
  26. folds
    microvilli
  27. tail
    flagellum
  28. higher concentration to lower concentration (adding or releasing energy?)
    passive transport, releasing
  29. swimming upstream (releasing or adding energy?)
    active transport, adding
  30. movement of substances from high concentration to low directly through phospholipid bi-layer
    simple diffusion
  31. what things can pass through the membrane?
    carbon dioxide, oxygen, and small lipids
  32. passive movement (high to low) but for bigger things
    facilitated diffusion
  33. movement of water from higher to lower-the more stuff you have, the less water
    osmosis
  34. same ratio of rocks to water; no movement
    isotonic
  35. more stuff is in the solution than in the cell, cell to solution
    hypertonic
  36. more stuff is in the cell than in the solution, solution to cell
    hypotonic
  37. cell eating, applies when solid food particles are ingested
    phagocytosis
  38. cell drinking, different from phagocytosis because the molecules are dissolved in liquid
    pinocytosis
  39. to exit the cell
    exocytosis
  40. all chromosomes are located here
    nucleus
  41. all genetic info is stored here
    chromosomes
  42. holds proteins insideĀ 
    genes
  43. what's inside the genes, responsible for how we look
    protein
  44. what are the components of a nucleotide
    five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
  45. Make pairs for: G T A C
    C A T G
  46. is a single strand of sugar, uses ribose as it's sugar
    RNA
  47. this can be found in the nucleus or cytoplasma
    RNA
  48. RNA pairs: T A G C
    A U C G
  49. takes code to ribosome
    messenger RNA
  50. makes up the ribosome, reads strands
    ribosomal RNA
  51. all pairs to amino acids (to make proteins)
    transfer RNA
  52. making of messenger RNA
    transcription
  53. making a protein
    translation
  54. misread 1 letter
    point mutations
  55. detrimental change in DNA
    frame shift
  56. copies all of one gene
    protein synthesis
  57. copies all of DNA
    DNA replication
  58. what divides the DNA latter into 2?
    DNA helicase
  59. what makes a pair for a strand of DNA
    DNA plymerase
  60. what connect DNA back together?
    DNA ligase

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