(serous/cyst adenocarcinoma) most ovarian malignancies are of epithelial type, hence ‘malignant surface tumours’ is used synonymously with ‘ovarian cancer’.
Ovarian carcinomas usu high grade, poor prog at later stages (most are detected late).
- Pathology: the progression is debated, and precursor lesions generally aren’t identified or accessible for sampling. There is a proposed ‘dual model’ describing the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer; types 1 and 2, each associated with different mutations.
- Type 1: mainly low grade carcinomas arising in precursor lesions (endometriosis, benign or borderline tumours).
- Type 2: high grade carcinomas probably arising from ovarian surface epithelium or fallopian tubes.
: not known, but risk factors include multiple ovulation, environmental and hereditary factors. Hereditary ovarian cancer (10-15% cases) mainly associated with BRCA 1 (usually high Serous Cystadenocarcinoma)
patients present as they would w most ovarian tumours, except in later stages when metastases occur.
: mainly intraabdominal, paraaortic nodes, distant (liver, lung etc).
- radiology (ultrasound, CT),
- serology (serum CA125)
- or surgical.
depends mostly on stage, also grade, subtype, and response to therapy.
not yet established but could involve clinical examination, serum CA125 and ultrasound.