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Fundamental requirement to protect patients rights?
What is informed consent?
the patient must fully understand what will be done during a test, surgery, and any medical procedure and must understand the risks and implications before he or she can legally consent to it.
four things patirnt needs to know before diadnostic examination?
- NPO after midnight
- Breakfast after examination is complete
- Special room is required for the tests
- Medication is needed before or during the test.
Types of diagnostic tests?
What is noninvasive test?
the body is not entered with any type of instrument. require informend consent from pt.
what is invasive test?
the bodys tissues, organs, or cavities are accessed through some type of procedure making use of instruments.
Guidelines for Specimen collection?
- Consider pt need and ability to participate in specimen collection.
- Recognize that collection of specimen may provoke anxiety, ambarrassment or discomfort.
- provide support who are fearful about the results
- Children need clear explanation of procedures and that they need support of their parents.
- Obtain specimen in accordance with specific prerequisite conditions.
What is a midstream urine specimen?
urine is collected after initiated and before voiding is complete.
Nurses responsibility urine specimen?
- Collect and label urine.
- Ensure safe delivery to the laboratory.
- Assess the results
How to collect a Sterile urine speciemen?
- Insert a straight catheter into the urinary bladder and remove urine.
- Also from a port of an indwelling catheter using sterile technique.
What is residual urine?
Urine left in the bladder after voiding. that is more than 50ml left.
What is a 24hr urine specimen?
The entire volume of urine from a 24 hour period collected.
What happens if you discard a urine sample in a 24hr urine collection?
Start over and restart the time.
what test is required of renal failure and urine composition?
24hr urine specimen.
Why are stool specimens collected?
- Determine presence of infection, bleeding, or hemorrhage.
- Observe the amount, color, consistensy, and presence or fats.
- Identify parasites, ova, and bacteria.
Determining the presence of occult blood in stool?
- Bright red blood.
- Black, tarry feces.
What does bright red blood mean in stool?
The blood is fresh and that the sire of bleeding is in the lower GI tract includes most of the small intestine and all of the large intestine.
What does black, tarry feces mean?
Precence of old blood and that the site of bleeding is higher in the GI tract consists of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
What is a sputum specimen?
Sputum is secretion from the lungs and it MAY contain blood.
When is the best time to take a sputum test?
Early in the morning because the pt has not yet cleared the respiratory passages.
Whats is culture?
Cultivation of microoganisms or cells.
What is sensitivity?
Determining the effectiveness of antibiotics.
What is cytology?
Study of cells
What is acid-fast bacillus?
Organism responsible for tuberculosis.
What is an aerobic organisms?
Organism that grows on superficial wounds that are exposed to air.
Obtaining a specimen collection for aerobic organisms?
Inserting a sterile syringe swab from the culturette tube into wound secretions, returning the swab to the culturette tube.
how to obtain a specimen collection for anaerobic organisms?
using a sterile syringe tip to aspirate visible drainage from the inner wound, returning the swab air from the syringe, and injecting the syringe sontents into a special vacuum container with culture medium.
Where does anaerobic organisms grow?
How to obtain a throat culture?
- Instruct patient to tilt head backwards
- Ask patient to open mouth and say "eh"
- If pharynx is not visualized, depress tongue with tongue blade and note inflamed area of pharynx and tonsils.
- Insert swab without touching lips, teeth, tongue, or cheeks.
How to collect blood specimen?
Whats is venipuncture?
insolves inserting a hollow-bore needle into the lumen of a large wein to ontain a specimen.
Possible risks of venipunture?
- low platelet count
- bleeding disorders
- Presence of arteriovenous shunt or fistula
What is a vacutainer system?
Same as Venipuncture but multiple samples can be taken.
Most common sites for venipunture? Alternative sites?
- Basilic and cephalic veins in the antecubital space are the most common.
- Hand veins is the alternatvie.
What is a electrocardiograph?
ECG or EKG is a graphic representation of electrical impulses generated by the heart during a cardiac cycle.
Whats a EEG electroencephalogram?
The graphic recording of the brains electrical activity.
What is a holter monitor?
24 hour EKG of the heart.
What is a EMG?
- Tests skeletal miscles at rest and with contraction.
- Detects primary muscler disorder.
- An invasive test with a needle electrode inserted into the muscle.
What is a radiologiacal studies?
The study of film exposed to x-rays or gamma rays through the action of ionizing radiation. Used ro study internal organs and structure.
What is flouroscopy?
used with a contrast medium, immediate serial images of the bodys structure and function. It reveals the motion of organs.
What is a angiography?
Visualiztion of the vasculer structures through the use of flouroscopy in conjunction with a contrast medium. Imges of internal organs.
What is arteriography?
Study of the vascular system following injection of a radiopaque dye through catheter.
What is an ultrasound?
Noninvasive procedure that high-frequency sound waves to visualize deep body structures.
What are the other names for ultrasound?
Echogram or sonogram
What is a magnetic resonance imaging?
MRI makes use of radiowaves and strong magnetic field to amke continous cross-sectional images of the body.
What is aspiration?
A procedure that is performed to withdraw fluid that has abnormally collected or to obtain a specimen.
Waht is Biopsy?
The excision of a small amount of tissue, obtain during aspiration or in conjunction with other diagnostic tests.
What is Amniocentesis?
The withdrawal of amniotic fluid to obtain a sample for examination.
Come indications with amniocentesis?
- PT. is over 35
- has had a spontaneous absorption with a previous pregnancy
- has had family history of genetic, chromosomal or neural tube defects
What is paracentesis?
- The aspiratio of fluid from the abdominal cavity.
- Can be therapeutic, diagnostic or both
- used with ascites at end stage liver or renal disease.
What is Thoracentesis?
The aspiration of fluid from the pleural cavity.
What complication may occur with thoracentesis?
Aspiration/biopsy of bone marrow in the illiac crest or sternum reveals?
- response to chemotherapy
What is a spinal tap?
What is a lumbar puncture?
the aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space.
What is a common comlication with lumbar puncture?
Why is it important to obtain cultures prior to the starting of antiobiotic administration?
To know how effective a antiobiotic is going to work.