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Yugoslavia began to break apart after the death
Of Tito. And the ending of the cold war.
Serbia dominated Yugoslavia.
Croatia and Slovenia had broken away and had been recognized in 1992 by European governments. Left Bosnia and Herzegovina with no option but to also become independent which happened later in 1992. Serbia did not want to lose control over all this area. Serbs began to start a campaign where serbs in Belgrade worked with Bosnian serbs to gain control of the eastern part of the country. Serbs began to use ethnic cleansing, essentially killed them. Started during Bush’s presidency and continued through Clinton’s presidency.
When Clinton came in 1992, he
Didn’t really want to get involved. Emphasized the economy. There was a huge federal debt.
Bosnia, and the area of the balkans
- It was not that easy for Clinton to stay out. Feb 1994, Serbs bombed the Sarajevo marketplace and got substantial publicity. Other areas were targeted and there were mass deaths.
- US and UN and EU began to work to end this conflict. Proclaimed exclusion cells around Sarajevo and Trebenica that were
- supposed to be safe zones the Serbs couldn’t attack. Under the UN, troops were sent in, and some American troops came into defend Macedonia as well.
- Republican leader in senate, Would run for president in 1996. He wanted to help Bosnia and stop the ethnic cleansing. All
- this led by 1995 to Clinton taking my initiative. Especially after Trebenica massacres.
Summer 1995, worked with Europeans to
- Make some sort of check. Began to intervene, wanted to stop Serbia and Slobadon Milosevic, Bosnian Radovan Karadzic. Invited delegations to come to Dayton, Ohio for top level meeting Nov. 1995. American gov was represented by Richard Holbrooke. Madeleine Albright would become sec of state and would push for agreement as well.
- - Dec 14, 1995, agreements were officially signed in Paris. Recognized ethnic cleansing the stop. Serbs would stay in Serbia and areas of Bosnia that had Serbs. Milosevic accepted this agreement because he did not want to face retaliation from US. There was continued US and NATO occupation in areas of Former Yugoslavia, including Bosnia.
Did not end with Daton Accords,
- Wilson supported Yugoslavia as a multienthnic place. One definition of national self determination could be a multienthnic
- nation. Another definition could be one particular nationality leading. Different ethnicities would turn into separate republics. This was the definition was the one th EU began to employ by recognizing these new governments. US moved along with this too. Left Serbia as the largest and strongest of former republics.
- Kosovo had not been one of the separate republics. Kosovo was a small province in Serbia. Kosovo was historically
- tremendously important for the Serbs. Serbia identified their origins with Kosovo. Would be like Philadelphia. What would happen in Philadelphia changed and then wanted to be a separate country. Would Americans allow? Most people
- who lived in Kosovo were Albanian, and Muslim. Serbs started ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. Kosovoers began guerilla warfare. By late 1990’s Madeline Albright was new sec of state.
Feb 1999, convened with Europeans in Paris
- To reach an agreement. Give a guarantee to Kosovo if they would stop their warfare. Serbs would not, After Kosovo agreed
- to stop, and negotiations broke down it left the serbs looking like the villains. From the point of view of Madeline Albright, was new generation American. Her parents fled from Czechoslovakia to get away from Germany. She did not know her
- parents were Jewish. They became catholic to hide religion. Her father got a job in Denver as an Eastern European expert. Had a student, Condoleezza rice. From her own ethnic experience, Albright clearly thought if you appease an aggressor they would be more aggressive. Saw Milosevic like Hitler. Really wanted to deal with him.
Milosevic would not agree to peace conditions to stop in Kosovo,
- US decided to retaliate. March 24, 1999, NATO forces under Wesley Clark began to air attack Serbia. Bridges, roads, military, factories were all bombarded. Clinton had announced long before that no land forces would sent to Kosovo. This gave a green light to Serb gov. Serb army moved into Kosovo with a vengeance. Many fled. Bombing continued spring 1999 through May. By June, Germans began to suggest German army might invade. Began to build facilities in Albania that
- could carry tanks to Kosovo. At this point Milosevic agreed to stop war June 9, 1999.
In process, General Clark accomplished several things,
- First time a war was one without one side sustaining any casualties. All deaths were on Serb side. However, Clark became
- very unpopular in Dep. of Defense. William Cohen, served as sec of Defense. They were barely involved in war in Kosovo. Albright, and Clark were much more for the war then the Dep. of Defense. They extracted its price by forcing his early retirement.
War in Kosovo was new for both Europe and US for one reason
First time NATO had become involved in a war outside of NATO area. In former Yugoslavia even though Yugoslavia were not involved in NATO.
To China, was another area where issue of national self-determination came up over the issue of Taiwan.
- - Clinton in his campaign in 1992, criticized Bush for not protecting human rights, including China
- - After Massacre at Tenamin Square, June 1989, Bush kept hands off. Many liberal democrats including Clinton criticized this indifference.
- - This human rights and democracy commitment, ran counter to the emphasis on the economy.
US and China would annually talk about trading terms
Tried to emphasize human rights but Bush and Regan but did not want to stop commerce. Looked like Clinton may cancel trading terms unless he could force Chinese to change on human rights. Clinton nonetheless in 1993, approved continuation of international trading. 1994, he made the same decision.
The related to Chinas membership in World Trade Organization in 1994.
- If going to have regular commerce, could invite China to WTO. All ran into issue of national self-determination in Taiwan. Taiwan had been independent since 1949 from mainland. Taiwan had been a military dictatorship. By mid 1990s, moved towards democracy. If we allowed China to absorb Taiwan and stop this move to democracy it would reverse national
This would culminate March 1996 in presidential election,
- Party running , progressive democratic party, wanted independece of Taiwan. Went against the one china policy. This raised alarm bells in Beijing. Beijing began to build military in 1996. Looked like if new gov moved toward independence, China would invade Taiwan to maintain one-china policy. All presidents had embrased the one china policy since Jimmy
Progressive democratic party,
Won but did not declare independence. Since, presidents have pressured Taiwan not to proclaim overt independence because it would make a major crisis. Majority of Chinese see Taiwan as a province of China. If Gov of Beijing would allow people in china to have their will they would probably attack Taiwan.
Clinton throughout the remainder of his presidency he focused on
Trade. Late 1999, endorsed membership of China in WTO. Did this so that in area of commerce it would bring China to follow guidelines. To approve membership in WTO, Clinton tried to extract some concessions in human rights but they refused. Clinton gave up on this. China would enter WTO, but China would not include Taiwan.
3rd wilsonian principle. Collective security.
- After cold war, one might assume NATO would cease to exist. They had been created in early cold war. With collapse of
- communism, it ended Warsaw pact. However, Bush and Clinton did not react this way with NATO. They began to look to expand NATO. New governments in eastern Europe began to look to join NATO. Russia still existed, and was a historical
- threat, so new governments wanted to join NATO. This raised issue of Russian US relationship
By time Clinton came in
Boris Yeltin was in. Accepted the break up, And Clinton administration wanted to good relationship with Yeltin. Yeltin was an alcoholic. They came up with the idea of a partnership for peace. Russian gov would be invited to join along with other countries. Poland, Czech republic, Slovakia. Some of these countries would join NATO but not Russia.
1993-1994 Yeltin would accept this. Russian federation would join partnership for peace.
- Was criticized in Russia. Faced election June 1996, he would go back on the agreement in 1994. All would lead to the
- admission of new NATO members by end of decade.
1998, US gov would welcome Poland, Czech republic, and Hungary.
Would join in 1999. Were brought in on the 50th anniversary. These new Europe gov. welcomed this relationship.
When negotiations fell through with Ukraine and others,
Yeltin did not want them to join NATO. By 1999, Yeltin named Vladimir Putin as successor. He came out of KGB. Wanted to restore old order. By end of 1990s problems were still existant between US and Russia.