Anatomy Exam 1

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Anatomy Exam 1
2012-09-30 16:07:43

Anatomy Exam 1
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  1. Sagittal Plane divides body into what parts?
    right and left halves
  2. Frontal Plane divides body into what parts?
    front and back portions
  3. Transverse Plane divides body into what parts?
    upper and lower halves
  4. Flexion and Extension occur in what plan?
  5. What descriptive terms are correlated to the sagittal plane?
    medial and lateral
  6. What actions occur in the frontal plane?
    adduction and abduction
  7. What descriptive terms are used in the frontal plane?
    anterior and posterior
  8. What action occurs in the transverse plane?
  9. What descriptive terms refer to the transverse plane?
    superior and inferior
  10. Describe Rostral
    describes the position of a structure with reference to the nose
  11. Name the different types of connective tissues
    • fascia
    • ligaments
    • tendons
    • bursa
    • fat pads
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • discs
  12. Describe Fibrous Connective Tissue
    • comprised of fibers with widely dispersed cells (fibroblasts)
    • fibers embedded in extracellular matrix
  13. Collagenous
    • most common fiber found in connective tissue
    • fibers are white
    • tough and non-elastic
    • when occur in places in which some damage must be possible, they are arranged in wavy bundles that allow movement until the slack of these bundles is taken up
  14. Elastic Fibers
    • these fibers actually are elastic
    • they may be stretched, and when the tension on them is relaxed, they shorted again
    • frequently mixed with more numerous collagen fibers
  15. Describe fascia
    • Connective tissue arranged in a sheath
    • surrounds a group of muscles, individual muscles, bundles of fibers, and individual muscle fibers
    • fluid is found in between the layers and allows free movement
    • superficial layer of fascia: surrounds and protects structures
  16. Describe Superficial Fascia
    • subcutaneous tissue is called superficial fascia
    • surrounds and protects different structures
    • helps in preventing the spread of infection or malignant disease
  17. Describe Deep Fascia
    • deep to the superficial fascia
    • well-developed
    • --seperates muscles in leg into compartments to necessitate nerve innervation and circulation
    • perimysium - thin fascia that surrounds individual muscle fibers
  18. Bursa
    • type of connective tissue
    • forms pocket-like accumulations of fluid
    • provides padding or protection
    • often between muscles and tendons or muscle and bone
    • susceptible to inflammation and swelling in response to irritation
  19. What is the most common type of bursitis?
    subacromial bursitis
  20. What are the two types of Subcutaneous Bursas and their function
    • Calcaneous Bursa: protects the achilles tendon
    • Lateral Malleolar Bursa: protects distal fibula and lateral malleolus
  21. What is the function of the Subacromial Bursa?
    protects the supraspinatus
  22. Describe Tendons
    • type of connective tissue
    • fibers are arrandged roughly parallel to one another to form a definite cord
    • fibers intertwine to form small bundles
    • surrounded by connective tissue sheaths
    • parallel fibers, don't stretch well, can be torn. Built for strength
    • injured through overuse of overstretching
  23. Aponeurotic Tendon
    broad, flat tendon expansion for attachment to a large area
  24. Describe Tendons
    • type of connective tissue
    • connect bone to bone
    • most ligaments are composed of dense collagenous tissue
    • some are pure elastic tissue
    • injured through over strentching - sudden or chronic
  25. Describe Cartilage
    • type of connective tissue
    • mainly intercellullar material with scattered cells
    • supportive framework for soft tissues
    • resists deformation more than bone
    • less brittle than bone
  26. Describe Hyaline/Articular Cartliage
    • smooth and glassy
    • covers weightbearing ends of bone surfaces
    • does not regenerate well after injury
    • frictionless
    • secretes fluid
    • covers all ends of joints
    • can wear away after time
    • more bone cells can build up as cartilage breaks down
  27. Describe Fibrocartilage
    • supports crushing weights
    • --intervertebral disks
    • --menisci of knees
    • --pubis symphysis
  28. Describe Elastic Cartilage
    • very flexible
    • supports soft structures which need to move freely
    • in the ear and nose
  29. What are the layers of the integumentary system. (top to bottom)
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subucutaneous tissue
    • Deep fascia
  30. Describe the Epidermis
    • most superficial
    • protection
    • heat regulation
    • sensation
    • nerve endings
    • stage 1 burns - most painful
  31. Describe the dermis
    • directly below the epidermis
    • collagen and elastin fibers
    • arrector muscles (goose bumps) - allows for most surface area when contracting
    • shows wrinkles with age
    • stage 2 burn - not as painful, nerves are damaged
  32. Describe the subcutaneous tissue
    • between the dermis and underlying deep fascia
    • loose connective tissue and fat
    • deepest part of sweat glands, blood and lymphatic vessels, cutaneous nerce are located here
    • sensation is absent
    • stage 3 burn - systematic problems, nerves are gone
  33. Describe the deep fascia
    dense organized connective tissue layer that invests deep structures
  34. What do  Skin Ligaments attach
    attach deep surface of dermis to underlyaing deep fascia
  35. Where are skin incisions made
    • along tension lines
    • easily mobile
  36. Stretch Marks
    damage to the collagen fibers in the dermis from rapid growth
  37. Axial Skeleton
    skull, spine, thoracic cage
  38. Appendicular Skeleton
    UE, LE, 2 coxial bones comprising of pelvis
  39. What is the function of bone?
    • protects vital structures
    • supports the body
    • provides mechanical basis for movement
    • blood cell development in marrow
  40. Bone Structure
    • fibrous connective tissue is a solid matrix
    • crytals of hydrated calcium phosphate
    • fibrous materials for resilience
    • salts for hardness and rigidity
    • more fibrous in young children = more flexible bones
    • increased crystals versus fivers with age = increased brittleness
  41. Greenstick fracture
    • occur in young bones as opposed to a clean break
    • more liable in younger children
  42. Compact Bone
    • forms outer surfaces of all bones
    • forms entire thickness of long bones except at ends
    • laid down in concentric layers
    • blood vessel in haversian canals
    • bone grows from within
  43. Spongy or Trabecular Bone
    • thin plates forming trabeculae
    • trabecular bones exists within compact bone
    • found in diapheseal
  44. What are examples of spongy or trabecular bones
    • verterbral bodies
    • ends of long bones
    • pelvic bones
  45. Describe long bones
    • longer than they are wide
    • compact bone with trabecular bone at the end
  46. Examples of long bones
    • humerous
    • radius
    • ulna
    • femur
    • tibia
    • fibula
  47. Describe short bones
    • bones that are equal height and width
    • squarish shape
  48. Examples of short bones
    carpal and tarsal bones
  49. Describe flat bones
    bones with gentle curves 
  50. Example of flat bones
    • skull
    • pelvis
    • scapulae
  51. Describe Irregular Bones
    • irregular in shape
    • neither clearly long, nor short, nor flat
  52. Examples of irregular bones
    • vertebrae
    • facial bones
  53. Describe Sesamoid bones
    • round of oval nodules of bone found in tendon
    • purpose is to reduce friction and provide better leverage for the muscle
  54. Examples of sesamoid bones
    patella, pisiform, sesamoids of the foot
  55. What are bone markings and features
    • elevations - crest, tubercle, protruberance, trochanter, tuberosity, malleolus, spine, process
    • facets
    • head, neck
    • condyle, epicondyle
    • openings or grooves - fossa, groove, notch, foramen, canal meatus
  56. What is the diaphysis
    the shaft of the bone
  57. What is the epiphysis
    • exists at the ends of the shaft of the bone
    • growth plate
  58. What is the metaphysis
    narrowed end between the epiphysis and diaphysis
  59. How does dwarfism (achondroplasia) occur?
    lack of growth from the epiphyseal plates
  60. What are the three categories of articulations?
    • Synarthroses
    • Amphiarthroses
    • Diarthroses
  61. Describe synarthroses
    • fibrous joints: connected with fibrous tissue allowing little to no movement
    • suture joint
  62. Primary function of synarthroses
    firmly bind bones together and transmit forces from one bone to another
  63. What is syndesmoses?
    • a type of joint that is joined by a ligament
    • connective membrane helps keep the bones together and provides stability
    • very little movement
  64. What are the gomphosis?
    sockets for the teeth
  65. What is amphiarthroses?
    • cartilaginous joints
    • limited movement
    • shock absorption
  66. What are cartilaginous joints?
    a joint that is formed of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage
  67. What is the primary cartilaginous joint and describe it?
    • synchondrosis
    • hyaline cartilage
    • ossifies and closes up with age
    • seperated by fibrous tissue
    • exists between the diaphysis and the terminal epephysis of long bones
  68. What is the secondary cartilaginous joint and describe it?
    • symphysis
    • fibrocartilaginous joints
    • all are median and confined to the axial skeleton (except symphysis pubis)
  69. Examples of symphyses
    • intervertebral discs
    • pubic symphysis
  70. What are diarthrosis joints?
    • synovial joints
    • joint cavity
    • articular cartilage
    • articular capsule
    • synovial membrane
    • synovial fluid
  71. What is the joint cavity?
    • space in and around the joint
    • surrounded by joint capsule
  72. Describe articular cartilage
    • usually hyaline
    • few nerves or blood vessels
    • nourished by synovial fluid
    • replaced by fibrocartilage when destroyed
    • friction free
    • glides easily
    • not very strong
    • "feed" by synovial fluid
  73. What is the joint capsule?
    • comprised of fibrous tissue that surrounds and contains the joint cavity - stratum fibrosum
    • synovial membrane - stratum synovium
  74. Describe the stratum fibrosum
    • poorly vascularized
    • richly innervated
    • receptors detect -
    • --rate and direction of motion
    • --compression and tension
    • --vibration and pain
  75. Describe the stratum synovium
    • highly vascularized - more swelling with injuries
    • poorly innervated
    • able to vasodilate and constrict (responds well to temperature)
    • produces synovial fluid and collagen - aids in healing/stiffness of joint
    • allows nutrients to enter and exit joint
  76. Describe synovial fluid
    • hyaluronic acid
    • lubricin
    • viscosity varies with velocity of movement and temperature
    • --less speed = more viscous = less movement
    • --more heat = less viscous = more movement
  77. How are synovial joints usually classified?
    according to shape and how they move
  78. What are the 3 classifications of synovial joints?
    • uniaxial: 1 DOF
    • biaxial: 2 DOF
    • triaxial/multiaxial: 3 DOF
  79. Examples of uniaxial joints
    • hinge joint - frontal plane
    • pivot joint - transverse axis
    • 1 degree of freedom
  80. Types of Biaxial Joint
    • Condyloid
    • Ellipsodial
    • Saddle
    • 2 degrees of freedom
  81. What is a condyloid
    • biaxial joint
    • 2 degrees of freedom
    • composed of the articulation between a large, rounded voncex component and a relatively shallow concave component
  82. What is a Ellisoidal
    • biaxial joint
    • 2 degrees of freedom
    • has a convex elongated surface in one dimension mated with matching concave surface on the other
  83. What is a saddle joint?
    • biaxial joint
    • 2 degrees of freedom
    • each partner of a saddle joint has two surfaces: one concave and one convex making it simialar to a horseback rider sitting on a saddle
  84. Types of triaxial joints
    • gliding joints - carpal bones
    • triaxial joint - ball and socket
    • 3 degrees of freedom
    • move in any direction
    • facet joints of spine
  85. Origin of skeletal muscle located what attachment?
    proximal attatchment
  86. Insertion of skeletal muscle is located at what attachment?
    distal attachment
  87. Muscles are innervated by what nerves?
    peripheral nerves
  88. Describe skeletal muscle attachments
    • have atleast two attachments, usually to bone
    • some attached to skin, mucous membrane, fascia
    • other muscles form circular bands around connective tissue
  89. Describe the actions of skeletal muscle
    • produce movement by shortening (contractions) - concentric
    • they pull, never push
    • attempt to resist elongation - eccentric
    • remaining at a constant length - isometric
  90. What are the three types of muscular activation?
    concentric, eccentric, and isometric
  91. Each muscle fiber is innervated by what?
    single anterior horn
  92. What makes up a single motor unit?
    • anterior horn cell
    • axon
    • myoneural junction
    • muscle fibers
  93. What are the three layers of skeletal muscle?
    • Epimysium: surrounds entire muscle
    • Perimysium: surrounds bundle of muscle fibers
    • Endomysium: surrounds individual muscle fibers
  94. Why is muscle shape important?
    it is an indicator of its specific action
  95. What are the four basic muscle shapes?
    • fusiform
    • triangular
    • rhomboidal
    • pennate
  96. What are parallel fibers?
    • fibers that run parallel with the long axis of the muscle
    • allows for a greater potential for range of motion
    • strap muscles
    • examples - levator scapulae, sartorious, sternocleidomastoid, biceps, brachialis
  97. Describe fusiform muscles
    wide in the middle and tapered at the end
  98. What muscle groups have parallel fibers?
    • fusiform
    • flat
    • transverse
    • rhomboidal
  99. Describe pennate muscles
    • olique muscle
    • fibers insert at an angle into a tendon that passes through the muscle like barbs of a feather attach to a quill
    • the more fibers = more strength
  100. Types of pennate muscle
    • Unipennate - one side attachment
    • Bipennate - two sides of tendon
    • Multipennate - many tendons within the muscle to which fibers attach
  101. What are the main muscles activated during movments of the body?
    agonists or prime movers
  102. What muscles oppose the action of prime movers?
    • antagonists
    • --as a prime mover contracts, the antagonist progressively relaxes (opposes movement)
  103. What is the role of a synergist?
    Prevents movement of the intervening joint when a prime mover passes over more than one joint
  104. What is the role of a fixator?
    steady the proximal parts of a limb while movements are occurring in distal parts
  105. What is smooth muscle and where is it found?
    • involuntary muscle
    • walls of digestive tract, uterine tubes, ureter
  106. Bones of the calvaria
    • frontal
    • temporal
    • parietal
    • occipital
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
  107. Where is the Pterion found?
    in the temporal fossa
  108. What bones intersect in the temporal fossa?
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • sphenoid
  109. What are sinuses?
    • cavaties filled with air
    • communicate with nasal cavaty
    • prone to infection
    • examples - ethmoid, maxillary, frontal
  110. What are cranial venous sinuses?
    • contained in dura mater
    • receive and drain blood and CSF from the brain
    • examples - superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus, petrosal, sigmoid, cavernous
  111. What are the three types of meninges?
    • Dura
    • Arachnoid
    • Pia mater
  112. What are dura meninges?
    • tough fibrous membrane
    • contacts skull as periosteum
    • separates cerebral hemispheres are cerebrum from cerebellum
    • outside layer
  113. What are arachnoid meninges?
    • surrounds brain, separated from dura by "potential space"
    • closely follows the dura
    • blood or fluid in this space results in pressure on the brain - a subdural hematoma
    • big space - middle space
  114. What is pia mater meninges?
    • follow the exact surface of brain
    • leaves subarachnoid space
    • filled with CSF
    • large spaces accumulate more CSF: cisterns
  115. What are the four parts of the brainstem?
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • midbrain
    • pons and medulla
  116. What is the role of the cerebellum?
    • control of voluntary motor
    • balance, coordination, sequencing and alternating movements
  117. What is the order for blood supply to the brain?
    vertebral arteries -> basilar artery -> posterior cerebral arteries
  118. What makes up the Circle of Willis?
    • internal carotids
    • --anterior cerebrals - anterior communicating arteries
    • --middle cerebrals
    • basilar
    • --posterior cerebrals - posterior communicating arteries
  119. Veings of the head and neck
    • brachiocephalic
    • internal jugular
    • external jugular
    • anterior jugular
  120. What is the name of the C1 vertebra?
  121. What is the name of the C2 vertebra?
  122. What is the action of the atlanto-occipital joint?
    rotation from right and left
  123. What is the role of the atlanto-axial joint
    flexion and extention
  124. Describe the Atlanto-Axial Joint
    • articulation of the atlas and axis
    • no interverbral disc at this level
    • Dens held in place by the cruciform ligament whic is covered by the tectorial membrane
  125. Describe the Atlanto-Occipital Joint
    • weak articular capsules
    • stability is provided mostly by joint shape and the occipital muscles
    • anterior atlanto-occipital membrane is a continuation of the anterial longitudinal ligament (on all the rest of the vertebra)
    • posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
  126. What makes up the laryngeal skeleton?
    • Thyroid cartilage (level of C4 and 5)
    • Hyoid bone
    • cricoid cartilage
    • tracheal rings
  127. What is the larynx?
    the upper part of the lower airway and is attached below to the top of the trachea and above the jyoid bone which is attached to the floor of the oral cavity
  128. What makes up the upper thoracic area?
    • Clavicle
    • 1st rib
    • Jugular notch
    • Sternoclavicular joint
  129. The facial nerve (VII) controls what muscles?
    • cervical
    • mandibular
    • buccal
    • zygomatic
    • temporal
  130. Nerve in the neck
    • Vagus - primary parasynpathetic innervation to organs of thorax and abdomen
    • phrenic - motor innervation to the diaphragm
  131. Arteries in the neck
    • brachiocephalic
    • subclavian
    • common carotid
    • internal carotid - supply structures within the skull
    • externam carotid - supply structures external to the skull, face
  132. Cervical Plexus
    • union of ventral rami C2-C4
    • gives rise to several cutaneous nerves to the head and neck and motor fibers to neck muscles
  133. Ansa Cervicalis
    • junction of C1 nerve fivers with hypoglossal nerve and fibers of C2 and 3
    • supplies infrahyoid muscles
  134. Sympathetic trunks
    • extension from the sympathetic nervous system
    • form four ganglia lyin over longus colli and longus capitis muscles
    • help control blood vessels, sweat glands, puil dilation, heart rate
  135. What are the arteries of the face?
    • Branches from external carotid
    • --superficial temporal
    • --facial
    • --maxillary
  136. veins of the face
    • external jugular: superficial veins of the face
    • Inernal jugular: facial vien
  137. What are the lymph nodes of the face?
    • submandibular lymph nodes
    • superfial and deep parotid lymph nodes
    • submental lymph nodes
  138. What are the three divisions of the Trigeminal (V) nerve?
    opthalmic, maxillary, mandibular
  139. Muscles of facial expression are all innervated by what nerve?
    facial nerve (VII)