Question Five

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Question Five
2012-09-28 17:54:32
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  1. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 1 and 2
    • Rise of Rome began with the Etruscans, who were a city-dwelling people with towns in commanding positions. Using their military power to rule Rome, they contributed to Rome a fighter type of mentality, as they constantly were forced to protect themselves from the dominating Etruscans. The Etruscans contribution of urbanization, however, created Rome. They also contributed fasces, insignia, and Etruscan dress.
    • When the Etruscans were overthrown by Rome, because of their location inland, they were faced with threats from all sides. Although this required great protection, this defense also enabled Rome to eventually rise to power as they saw it as opportunistic. Expansion was not due to protection however; it was also due to the Senate's desire to gain wealth from newly established territories.
  2. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 3
    • With the rise of Rome came the rise of power within the Roman republic. However, struggles ensued before this rise of internal power occurred. 
    • Rome was organized by imperium, with the consuls and praetors holding it. Consuls were responsible for leading armies and administered the government. The praetor was added later, in 366 bce; their responsibility was to govern Rome and lead armies in the consuls' absence and execute justice and civil law.With the expansion of Rome came the addition of numerous praetors until eventually Rome became so large a new system of proconsul and propraetor developed. 
    • The Senate, though not legislation, advised the consuls and eventually received the force of the law. Their advice was not taken lightly. Underneath the Senate were the assemblies, most importantly the centuriate assembly, which was basically the Roman army functioning in politics. The council of the plebs developed as a result of internal struggles between the two classes-- plebeians and patricians.
  3. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 4
    Patricians were the wealthy landowners, while the plebeians were all others, regardless of whether they possessed an equal amount of wealth to the patricians. There was also an unequality associated with the classes. Both classes could vote, but only patricians could hold government positions. Both could make marriage contracts, but no intermarriage was permitted. This led to internal plebeian dissent; and, as a result, in 494 BCE, the plebeians seceded from Rome. At the same time, Rome was facing threats from Latin communities. Because plebeians made up the armies, patricians realized the necessity of hte plebeians and created the tribunes of the plbes and the council of the plebs. Still, plebeians eventually realized the importance of knowledge of law and pressured the patricians until decemviri were created, whom created the Twelve Tables of Law in 450 BCE. Still feeling disadvantaged, the Canuleian law was passed, allowing intermarriage. In 367, the Licinian- Sexton laws opened the consulship to plebeians, and in 287, the plebeians received their maximum amount of power with the Hortensian law, which made plebiscita binding on all citizens without senate approval. While all of these internal changes were occurring, Rome was busy conquering Italy, which is why patricians constantly succumbed to plebeian wishes.
  4. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 5
    During hte internal struggle of orders, Rome was expanding. Their expansion occurred in three steps: conquest of Italy, Mediterranean, and the Eastern Mediterranean. After the Latin communities provided a threat to Rome, they established an alliance. This was only temporary as Latin communities felt Rome was dominating and therefore led a revolt against the ROmans, who instantly crushed it. Afterwards, Romans engaged in a struggle with the Samnites. Their defeat gave Rome control over a alrge part of Italy and caused it to come into contact with Greece, who bought the aid of King Pyrrhus due to their mercenary power. Although two Pyrric victories occurred, Pyrrhus was eventually defeated; and by 267 BCE, Romans completed their conquest of southern Italy. After crushing the remaining northern Etruscan states, they controlled all of Italy, granting citizenship to some communities and alliances to others with freedom over their own land. However, all had to contribute armies. 
  5. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 6
    Next came the Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean. After conquering the Roman peninsula, Rome came into contact with a very formidable power-- Carthage. When Rome decided to intervene in a struggle between two Sicilian cities and sent an army, Carthage declared war. Both sides wanted Sicily. Romans realized the longevity of the war and therefore made a navy. Carthage, however, struggled with a need for mercenaries. Eventually, a Roman fleet defeated Carthage's navy, causing Carthage to sue for peace, ending the First Punic War. Three years later, Rome took Sardinia and Corsica. After hte first Punic War, Carthage's Hamilcar Bursa restored Carthage by creating a Spanish empire with Spanish soldiers, increasing their army's size, and consolidating for lost territories. The second Punic War occurred with Hannibal, when Rome disregarded the Treaty of the Ebro River adn created an alliance with Saguntum. Hannibal attacked Saguntum and Rome declared war, leading to the Second Punic War. During hte 2nd Punic War, Hannibal crossed the Alps with 30-40,000 troops and 6000 cavalry adn elephants. After defeating Rome at Lake Trasimene and the Trebia River, Hannibal tried to get Rome's allies to switch sides. This did not occur until the massacre of Rome at the Battle of Cannae. Nevertheless, Rome recovered and eventually defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama in 202 BCE, causing Hannibal to eventually kill himself after Antiochus made peace with the Romans. Still, one more Punic War occurred when Carthage broke their peace treaty. This resulted in the complete obliteration of Carthage with burning of everything and salting the fields. Carthage became a province called Africa. 
  6. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 7
    Rome's last expansion was attributed to its involvement in the Hellenistic politics adn advocating hte freedom of the Greek city states. Rome became aware of the Hellenisti world during the Punic Wars. Afterwards, however, through their diplomatic skills and military successes, they were able to rearrange territorial boundaries and achieve the freedom of the Greek city states. Still, Greeks revolted; adn Rome taught them a lesson by destroying the leader, Corinth, and placing the others under Roman rule. THe final puzzle piece came from the King of PErgamum, who deeded his land to Rome, giving it its first province in Asia. Rome had conqueered the entire mediterranean. This is where decline occurred. 
  7. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 8
    Internal struggles occurred due to several changes, such as the demands of hte army on farmers, who no longer received a war season where they returned to their farms after a year. Instead, when they returned, their land was completely deteriorated and they were forced to sell it. Large landowners,however, bought up all of the state owned land and the land of the small farmers and created a latifundia. This increase in latifundias led to the decline of the small farmers and a decline in the army. It also created an unstable class of poor property-less farmers who wandered looking for work. 
  8. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 9
    Another cause of the decline was the struggle between the aristocrats. The aristocrats were divided into the senate- supporting optimates and hte assembly-supporting populares. Furthermore, a new class developed with teh growth of the empire. This new class wanted power just as much as the populares, but were not given the power. 
  9. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 10
    One more problem was the transformation of Roman values. Roman traditional values of conservation and dutiful roles in society transformed into the desire for affluence, wealth, etc. They no longer valued the good of the community, but instead focused on luxuries and sexuality, which was blamed on the Greeks.
  10. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 11
    With all these changes, the Gracchan reforms were initiated by Tiberius and Gaias. Tiberius pushed for the taking of land fromt he Senate and redistribution of land to small farmers. Instead of going to the Senate, he took his law, which was passed, to the Council of the Plebs. This resulted in his assassination. Gaius continued his brother's attempts, appealing to more people by replacing Senators in charge of trying provincial governors with those of the equestrian class. Furhtermore, he opened provinces in Asia to equestrian tax collectors. Unfortunately, Gaius was killed as a result of hte final decree of hte Senate. 
  11. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    pp. 12
    After the Gracchan brothers came Marius, who was given command of the war against Mithridiates. Marius' major contribution, which proved very disadvantageous to the Roman republic, was his development of an army whose loyalty was for the general rather than the Senate due to the promise of land. This continued throughout the fall of the Republic. 
  12. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 13
    Another man who engaged in this army was a man named Sulla came into power in 88 BC. Gaining fame from the Italian War, he became consul and was given command of the war against Mithridiates until Marius returned and was given command of the war. Eventually reestablishing power, Marius paired with Cinna and outlawed Sulla and killed his followers. After his death, however, Sullar returned and established control of Rome, restoring power to the Senate. When he believed he restored the Roman republic, he left a massive power vacuum that was occupied by Pompey and Crassus.
  13. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 14
    • Pompey and Crassus both fought for Sulla and gained fame through military. Crassus by crushing Spartacus and his revolts and Pompey for his command in Spain.
    • The two men paired up together and restored the power of hte popular assemblies, undoing Sulla's work. As a result, tribunes gave Pompey the role of clearing the Mediterranean and given command against Mithridiates. When he returned and wanted eastern settlements and land for his veterans, new forces denied him.
  14. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 15
    One new force was Cicero, who believed in concord of hte orders nad collective rule. Although he was censor who established fame by suppressing a political conspiracy, Cicero believed that concord of the orders was only possible with a strong general, who he said Pompey was. However, the Senate denied both him and Caesar. 
  15. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 16
    • Caesar, the nephew of Marius, was given command of Spain, where he succeeded and expected a triumph. When he was denied this, he formed the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus. All three men received what they wanted. Pompey: eastern settlements and land for veterans
    • Crassus: equites receive reduction from taxes
    • Caesar: extends military command in Gaul. 
    • Afterwards, all men gain military command. When Crassus dies, Pompey adn Caesar vie for power. While Caesar made his name, developed a loyal army of seasoned veterans, and acquired booty and slaves to pay off his debts, Pompey gained the power of the Senate and warned Caesar of his execution if he returns to Italy. However, when Caesar crossed the Rubicon into Italy, Pompey fled to Greece. Soon, Caesar pursued him, leading to the battle of Pharsalus, where Pompey was defeated. Pompey fled to Egypt, hoping to gain assistance from a client of his who was a king, but the king had him killed.
  16. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp/ 17
    • Caesar becomes dictator and issues reforms. 
    • Had supporters elected to offices. Increased Senate to nine hundred with supporters on it. Granted citzenship to people who assisted him. Romanization
    • Tried to create some sense of rational order.
    • Replaced Roman calendar. assassinated by senators= civil war.
  17. Factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the Roman Republic.
    Pp. 18
    • Caesar’s successor was Octavian.
    • Octavian, just like his adopted grand-uncle, created the Second Triumvirate with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus. Together, they reinstated Sulla’s policy
    • of proscription (Cicero killed in this as he spread orations about Mark Antony) and pursued and defeated Caesar’s assassins at Philippi. Eventually, Lepidus was shunted aside and Antony and Octavian divided Rome between the two of them, sealing the deal with a marriage of Antony to
    • Octavian’s sister, Octavia. Still, Rome was too small for the both of them; so, Antony left Octavia for Cleopatra VII, causing Octavian to initiate propaganda campaigns against him. Eventually, at the Battle of Actium (31 BCE) , Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra, leading them to commit suicide. This was the end of the Roman Republic and the end of civil wars. A new era was being issued--> The Imperialistic Rome.