HSII Ch. 3

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  1. plasma membrane
    • forms outer boundary of cell
    • thin, two-layered membrane of phospholipids containing proteins
    • selectivley permeable
  2. ribosomes
    • makes proteins
    • may attach to rough ER or lie freely
  3. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • Carry substances through cytoplasm
    • network of connecting sacs & canals
  4. rough ER
    • has ribosomes attached to it
    • collets & transports proteins made by ribosomes
  5. smooth ER
    synthesizes chemicals & makes new membrane
  6. Golgi apparatus
    • flattened sacs near nucleus 
    • collect chemicals moved from smooth ER in vesicles and proccesses them
  7. ribosomes are also called...
    protein factories
  8. Golgi apparatus is also called...
    chemical processing & packaging center
  9. lysosome
    • membrane enclosed packets containing digestive system
    • eat microbes
    • formerly thought to be responsible for apoptosis (programmed cell death)
  10. centrioles
    • paired organelles lie @ R angles near nucleus
    • cell reproduction
  11. cilia
    • hairlike on exposed surface
    • capable of moving wavelike in unison
  12. flagella
    • single projections much larger than cilia
    • "tails" of sperm cells only example of flagella in humans
  13. what does the nucleus do?
    • controlls cell
    • makes proteins, which determines cell structure & function (genetic code)
  14. nucleus component structures
    • nuclear envelope
    • nucleoplasm
    • nucleolus
    • chromatin granules
  15. what do cells do?
    • regulate life processes
    • relationship of structure & function in number & type of organelles seen in different cells
  16. types of passive transport
    • diffusion
    • - osmosis
    • - dialysis

  17. diffusion
    substances scatter evenly throughout space moving from high to low concentration
  18. osmosis
    diffusion of water through semi permeable membrane
  19. filtration
    movement of water and solutes caused by hydroststic pressure on one side of the membrane
  20. types of active transport
    • ion pumps
    • pinocytosis
    • phagocytosis
  21. ion pumps
    • protein in cell membrane use energy from ATP to move things across cell membrain against concentration gradient
    • some pumps work w/other carriers so glucose or AA- are transported w/ions
    • ex.: sodium-potassium pump, calcium pump
  22. isotonic
    • same concentration of salt as a normal RBC
    • 0.9% NaCl solution
  23. hypertonic
    • higher level of salt
    • inflated cell lyses (explodes)
  24. hypotonic
    • contains less salt
    • cell shrivel
  25. DNA structure
    lg. mol. shaped like a spiral staircase
  26. what's on the side of a DNA mol.?
    • sugar (deoxyribose)
    • phosphate units
  27. base pairs
    • adenine-thymine
    • guanine-cytosine

    always the same, but sequence differs
Card Set:
HSII Ch. 3

Cells & Tissues
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