Western Civ Ch 4

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  1. Villanovans
    People of  the first Iron Age culture in Italy (1000-800 BC), which was based in the north.  They made iron tools and weapons and placed the ashes of their dead in large urns.
  2. Phoenicians
    • Around 800 BC, they arrived in the west, first as traders and then as colonists
    • known as the best and must ruthless seafarers of antiquity.
  3. Carthage
    • located on the the north coast of Africa
    • independent cityl the center of expanding Phoenixian presense in the western Mediterranean
  4. Etruscans
    Peoples native to Italy who influenced the formation of the Roman state.
  5. Livy
    Roman historian (59 BC - 17 AD) claims that when Tullia was the first person to adcknowledge her husband as king, he was so shocked by this political action that he sent her home.
  6. Cumae
    Early colony, began as a trading post
  7. Romulus and Remus
    • Twin sons of the war god Mars and a Latin Princess
    • said to be the origins of Rome
    • according to legend they were thrown into the Tiber River, and they were raised by a she-wolf
  8. The Alban League
    Loose confederation of Latin villages for military and religious purposes
  9. Plebs
    Families not organized into gentes, or clans, in early Roman society.  The lower classes
  10. Patricians
    leaders of the gentes, or clans, in early Roman society
  11. Clients
    Free men who depended on the protection of a more powerful individual or family and who owed various services, including political support, in return for protection.
  12. The Senate
    More powerful although less fomral was the role of the Senate (assembly of elders), which was coposed of heads of families.
  13. Latium
    a marshy region punctured by hills on which a sparse population could find protection from disease and enemies
  14. Tarquin the Elder
    Rome king that used the city's location on the Tiber ford as a strategic position from which to control Latium to the south.
  15. Servius Tullius
    Rome king that used the city's location on the Tiber ford as a strategic position from which to control Latium to the south.
  16. Latifundia
    The vast rural estates of the Roman patricians which were worked by slaves or free but dependents tenant farmers
  17. Centurions
    centuriate - military unit
  18. Tarquin the Proud
  19. Imperium
    The powers conferred on magistrates by the Roman people; the supreme power to command, to execute the law, and to impose the death penalty
  20. Consuls
    successful magistrates rose through a series of increasingly important offices to the position of consul
  21. Censors
    assigned individuals their places in society, determined the amount of their taxes, filled vacancies in the Senate, and negotiated contracts for public construction projects
  22. Tribunes
    magistrates elected by the Council of the Plebs
  23. The Struggle of the Orders
    conflict between the plebeians and the patricians that threatened to tear Roman society apart
  24. The Law of the Twelve Tables
    codification of basic Roman law, which recognized the basic rights of all free citizens.
  25. The Punic Wars
    • Three wars between Rome and Carthage
    • First  Punic War - 265-241 BC
    • Second Punic War 
  26. Hamilcar Barca
    Carthaginian commander, surrendered to Rome because Rome could build more fleets than Carthage
  27. Hannibal
    • Carthage ruler provoked the Second Punic War
    • Marched from Spain along Mediterranean coast and across the Alps on elephants
    • Won battles, but could not hold onto the cities that were captured
  28. Scipio the Elder
    • Publius Cornelius Scipio
    • Roman commander that forced Hannibal out of Italy by attacking Carthage in Africa instead of defending Italy
  29. Cato the Elder
    • Marcus Porcius Cato
    • Roman censor who wanted Carthage detroyed
  30. Paterfamilias
    The male head of household in the Roman family.  His power was absolute, including the power of life and death.
  31. Timaeus
    • Greek historian, first one to focus on Rome
    • wrote a history of Rome up to the Pyrrhic War
  32. Plautus
    Roman playwright
  33. Equestrian
    In the early Roman Republic, the equestrians were one of the richest classes in the Roman army, those who could afford to maintain a horse.  By the late republic, their role expanded into banking and commerce
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Western Civ Ch 4
2012-09-30 04:18:36

Chapter 4 Rome
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