Human Behavior

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pseverson
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174200
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Human Behavior
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2012-09-29 09:36:14
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Human Behavior chapter
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Chapter 4
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  1. Animism (Part of Piaget's Intuitive Substage).
    • Give human traits to inanimate objects
    • i.e. "bad desk"
  2. Artificialism (Part of Piaget's Intuitive Substage)
    • Human beings cause natural phenomenon.  Everything is organized for human use.
    • i.e. lakes dug by men
  3. A way of thinking about two or more experiences without using abstract logic.
    Transductive reasoning

    i.e. boy smells food grandma is cooking and automatically assumes there is a party.
  4. Children perceive reality only from their own experience and believe themselves to be at the cetner of existence.
    Egocentrism
  5. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development:
    Subtage One ____________
    Substage Two ______________
    • Substage One: Preconceptual stage (ages 2-3)
    • Substage Two: Intuitive stage (ages 4-7)
  6. At the end of childhood young children have a vocabulary of about __________words
    1,000
  7. By age 4 most children can speak in stentences of _____amount of words
    8-10 words per sentence.  Language is remarkably sophisticcated.
  8. Magical Thinking (Part of Piaget's Intuitive Substage)
    • Cause and effect determined by child's wishes or non-real explinations 
    • i.e. Believe it's raining because they wished it.
  9. Irreversibility (Part of Piaget's intuitive substage)
    • Inability to work backward ot the starting point (reverse operation)
    • i.e. If asked if he had a sister - yes
    • i.e. If asked if his sister had a brother - no
  10. Centration (Part of Piaget's Intuitive Substage)
    • The process of concentrating on only one aspect of an object at a time while ignoring other aspects.  One trait at a time.
    • i.e. unable to consider all available information about an object.
  11. Perception Bond (Part of Piaget's Intuitive Substage)
    • Base judgement on how things look at the present time.
    • Rely heavily on visiual infromation 
    • What they see is true
  12. Moral Development at this age (Piaget)
    • Moral Realism
    • Rules are sacred
    • Rules are inflexible
    • Just is whatever the authority figure commands 
    • Judge act by consequences
  13. Moral Development at this age (Kohlberg)
    • Pre-Conventional Morality 
    • Stage 1: Punish and Obedience: decisions based on reward and punishment.

    Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist: satisfaction of own needs (preschoolers).
  14. Piaget's Preconceptual stage (2-3)
    The develpment of symbolic representation.
  15. The child's ability to view an image and then, significantly later, recall and imitate the image
    Deferred imitation
  16. B.F. Skinner (1957) argued that children lean language by imitating what they hear in their enviornment...
    and then being reinforced for correct usage.
  17. Noam Chomsky (1968) argued that language ability...
    is primarily a function of genetics
  18. During early childhood, children move from a moral sense that is based on outside approval to a more...
    internalized moral sense, with a rudimentary moral code.
  19. Three comonents of moral development during early childhood:
    1) Knowledge of the moral code of the community.

    2) Emotions that produce both the capacity to care about others and feel guilt/remorse.

    3)Actions to inhibut negative impulses - prosocial, helpful and emphatic.
  20. Psychodynamic approach by Sigmund Freud propsed:
    three distinc structures of the personality: id, ego, and superego.
  21. Superego is the personality structure that 
    guides moral development.
  22. Two aspects of superego:
    • 1) Conscience - basis of moral code.
    • 2) Ego Ideal - set of ideals expected in a moral person.
  23. Superego is formed between the ages of 
    4-7.
  24. Moral behavior is shaped by envronmental reinforcements and punishments...
    Social learning approach. 
  25. Children's moral judgements change as their congnitive development allows them to examine the logical and abstract concepts of moreal dilemmas. 
    Congitive Developmental Approach
  26. Children's reasoning about moral issues is based first on what gets them rewarded or punished...
    Preconventional Level.
  27. The ability to understand another person's emtional condition.
    Empathy.
  28. The ability to see a situation from another person's point of view.
    Perspective Taking.
  29. The ability to be attuned to another person
    Social Intelligence.
  30. Level I.  Prevonventional:
    Stage 1: Moral reasoning is based on whether behavior is rewareded or punished.

    Stage 2: Moral reasoning is based on what will benefit the self or loved others.
  31. Level II. Convetional 
    • Stage 3: Moral reasoning is based on the approval of significant others.
    • Stage 4: Moreal reasoning is based on upholding societal standards.
  32. Level III.  Postvonentional 
    • Stage 5: Moral reasoning is based on social contracts and cooperation.
    • Stage 6: Moral reasoning is based on universal ethical principles. 
  33. Early Childhood 
    • -Slower physical growth.
    • -Development of fine motor skills
    • -Progress in ability to judge right/wrong
    • -Increased self-sufficiency
    • -Curiosity
  34. Average growth spans
    • 1st year - 8 inches
    • 2nd year - 4 inches 
    • 3rd year - 3 inches
  35. Mirrior neuron is key to developing...
    empathy.
  36. The belief about what constitutes a fair distribution of goods and resources in society
    Distributive Justice.
  37. Erikson labeled the stage of emotional developmen that takes place during the early childhood years as
    • Initiative Versus Guilt
    • (p.149)

    • Between 3-6 years kids experience conflict over their desire to act independently of parent's wishes and guilt.
    • Allow children to choose activities
    • Encourage children to share opinions
    • Encourage kids to play with others
    • Don't react with scorn - otherwise develop guilt
  38. Emotional Development at this age
    • Can talk about own feelings
    • Can regulate emotions well enough for preschool rules
    • Recognize and label other's feelings
    • Use creative wasy to comfort others

    • Improving - verbalizing needs to cope with anxieties.
    • Improving - use of transitional objects.
  39. Children who are stuck in the Initiative versus Guilt stage
    • are plagued with guilt about thier goals.  They becoem confused about gender and family roles.  These children are overly anxious and self-centered.
    • (p.149)
  40. Tantrums of young depressed children are more
    • violent, destructive, verbally agressige, and self-injurious - they also have a longer recovery time. 
    • (p.150)
  41. Instrumental Aggression
    • is fighting over toys and space.
    • (p.150)
  42. Hostile Agression
    • is an attack meant to hurt another individual.
    • (p.150)
  43. Physical aggression 
    • is using physical force against someone.
    • (p. 150)
  44. Relational Aggression
    • beaviors that damage relationships without physical force; such as, threatening to leave a friendship unless the person complies to the request, or using social exclusion in order to get one's way.
    • (p. 150)
  45. Sroufe and colleauges found that temperment 
    was not a powerful indicator of early childhood behavior.
  46. Self-Esteem or Self Evaluation
    • the growing capacity to understand self in relation to others.
    • (p. 152)

    • 3 year old's self says, "I like to run" or "I have long hair."
    • Labeling Theory - distinguish between kid vocab and grown up vocab.
  47. Gender Identity in early childhood.
    • 1. Make correct use of the gender lable by age 2
    • 2. Understand gender as stable - boys grow to be men
    • 3. Gender Consistency - understanding that one's gender does not change (sometime between 4 and 7).
    • 4. Understanding genital basis of gender.
    • (p.153)
  48. Gender 
    is the congitive, emotional, and social schemes that are associated with being female and male.
  49. Gender Identity
    referes to one's sese of being male or female.
  50. Sexual Orientation 
    refers to one's preferencefor sexually intimate partners.
  51. Symbolic Play 
    is also known as fantacy play, pretend play, or imaginary play.
  52. Symbolic play has 4 primary functions:
    • 1. explore reality
    • 2. congintive development
    • 3. gain control over their lives
    • 4. shared experience - develop peer culture.
    • (p. 156)
  53. Learning Play
    focused on language and thinking skills. 
  54. Sociodramatic Play 
    is group fantasy play, which is considred the most important form of play during early childhood. 
  55. Discipline 
    involves helping a child overcome a problem.
  56. Authoritarian Parenting 
    • uses low warmth and high control....favor of punishment and negative reinforcements, childeren treated as submissive.  Kids often are moody, hostile, and handle stress poorly.
    • (p.164)
  57. Authoratative Parenting
    parents consider child's viewpoints but remain in control.  Children have better accedemic success, self-esteem, and social competence.
  58. Permissive Parenting
    accepts children's behavior without attempting to modify it.  Usually children are cheerful but have little impulse control.
  59. Disengaged Parenting
    • Parents who are aloof, withdrawn, and unresponsive.
    • (p.164)
  60. More than half of children born in the 1990s spent
    some of their childhood in single-parent households.
  61. Children who grow up in a violent environment are reported to demonstrate:
    • Low self-esteem
    • Deficient social skills
    • Difficulty coping with conflict
  62. Children who witness intimate partner violence at home are
    more likely to be victimized in other ways.
  63. Child Maltreatment
    • Neglect
    • Physical Abuse
    • Sexual Abuse
    • Emotional Maltreatment
    • (p.170)
  64. The braing grows at a faster rate than any other part of the body
    • Age 2 - 3/4 size and weight of adult brain
    • Age 3 - 90% of weight of adult brain
  65. Increase Lateralization 
    Braing becomes more sophisticated and more organized as it developes - works better. 

    • Left Hemisphere - verbal and sequential info
    • Right Hemisphere - non verbal and global
  66. Characteristics of Bipolar Children at this age
    • Sever temper tantums that include violence and property destruction.
    • Can feel and act angry for up to 4 hours
    • Temper tantrums triggered by limit setting
  67. Characteristics of ADHD at this age
    • Careless breaking
    • Outburst calm down in 20-30 minutes
    • Temper tantrums triggered by sensory and emotional overstimulation
  68. Social Development 
    • Choosing playmate is very simplistic.
    • Being Chosen: Reject aggressive behavior
    • Select thos who share and communicate well
    • Increasing same-gender friendships - 7-8yrs.
    • Positive view of self influenved by messages of love, admiration, and approval.
  69. Racial and Ethnic Differences
    • Children first learn their own racial identity before they are
    • able to identify the race of others
    • Early identification of others by race is limited to skin color
    • Prefer children of the same race
    • Children understand that race is stable
    • Some preschoolers have mixed feelings about their racial and ethnic identity 
  70. Cultural Difference
    • Individualistic Orientation A philosophy that
    • emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual
    • Collectivist Orientation A philosophy that
    • promotes the notion of interdependence
  71. Cultural Differences - What SWs Should Know:
    • Family’s cultural background: Beliefs, Norms/traditions, Child rearing practices
    • Familiarity with language
    • Immigration history
    • Level of acculturation
    • Effect of socioeconomic status
  72. Gender Identity - Developing Femalness and Maleness
    • Pre-school children often have very strict ideas about how boy and girls are supposed to act
    • Strength vs. nurturance
    • In fact, their expectations are even more gender-stereotyped than adults and may be less flexible  than at
    • any other point in the life span
    • Reflects absolutist sense of rules
  73. Cognitive Explinations
    • Gender identity The perception of oneself as male or female (age 2)
    • Gender constancy People are permanently males or females, due to fixed, unchangeable biological factors - the girl dressed as a boy is still a girl
    • Gender schema A cognitive framework or organized body of knowledge about gender 
  74. Types of Play
    • Solitary Play (1-2 yrs.)
    • On-looker Play
    • Parallel Play (2-3 yrs.)
    • Associative Play (3-4 yrs.) share, cooperative, argue and physical practice of skills
    • Cooperative Play (4-5 yrs.) - understand and follow rules
  75. Warning Signs of emotional and behavioral prolems
    • extreme aggressive behavior
    • difficulty with change
    • invasion of others’ personal space
    • compulsive or impulsive behavior
    • low ability to trust others
    • lack of empathy or remorse
    • cruelty to animals 
  76. Early Childhood Education
    • Positive relationship between early childhood education and educational outcomes in children “regardless of race or class”
    • Curriculums that emphasized giving children the opportunity to plan activities (child vs. teacher ) result in better outcomes
    • Racial disparities in education begin in early
    • childhood, e.g. “baby ivies” 
  77. Impact of Poverty 
    Poverty: 14 million children in the US live in poverty (22% of children age 6 and younger)  and effects of poverty in childhood are long-lasting especially on language and cognitive skill development
  78. Impact of Homelessness
    • Families with children make up one third of the homeless population
    • Nationally, 35% women coming into the shelters are pregnant & 26% given birth within a year of seeking shelter (Family Housing Fund, 1999) 
    • The parental relationship is strained by homelessness and a parents’ inability to provide the basic necessities for their children
  79. Impact of Divorce
    • Approximately two-thirds of children live with their mother
    • following divorce and often experience a sharp and long-term decline in economic well-being

    • Five conclusions about the impact of divorce on children
    • (Emery, 1999):
    • 1. Divorce is stressful for children
    • 2. Divorce leads to higher levels of adjustment and mental health problems for children
    • 3. Most children are resilient and adjust well (12-18 mos. most symp. disp.)
    • 4. Children report considerable pain,
    • unhappy memories, and continued distress   about
    • their parents’ divorce
    • 5. Post divorce family interaction has a great influence on children’s adjustment
  80. Divorce Recovery
    • Pre Divorce Factors
    • Openness & intensity of arguments
    • Behavioral problems already present before divorce (child with other issues)

    • Post Divorce Factors
    • More influential than the divorce itself
    • Parental cooperation
    • Warm relationship with the child
    • Financial problems minimized
    • Parental and child support problems minimized

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