302 Ch. 18

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aemoore451
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174201
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302 Ch. 18
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2012-09-28 22:39:14
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302 Lab Test
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302 Lab Ch. 18: Thorax and Lungs
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  1. Alveoli
    • functional units of the lung
    • the thin-walled chambers surrounded by networks of capillaries taht are the site of respiratory exchange of CO2 and O2
  2. Angle of Louis
    • Manubriosternal angle
    • the articulation of the manubrium and the body of the sternum
    • coutinuous with the second rib
  3. Apnea
    cessation of breathing
  4. asthma
    • an abnormal respiratory condition associated with allergic hypersensitivity to certain inhaled allergens
    • characterized by bronchoapsms, wheezing, and dyspnea
  5. Atelectasis
    an abnormal repiratory condition characterized by collapsed, shrunken, deflated section of alveoli
  6. bradypnea
    • slow breaking
    • less than 10 breaths per min
  7. bronchiole
    one of the smaller respiratory passageways into which the regmental bronchi divide
  8. Bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi with partial obstruction of bronchi due to excessive musuc secretion
  9. Bronchophony
    the spoken voice sound heard through the stehoscope, which sounds soft, muffled, and indistinct over normal lung tissue
  10. Bronchovesicular
    • the normal breath sound heard over major bronchi
    • characterized by moderate pitch and an equal duration of inspiration and expiration
  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    a funcational category of abnormal respiratory conditions characterized by airflow obstruction
  12. Cilia
    millions of hairlike cells lining the tracheobronchial tree
  13. Consolidation
    • the solidification of portions of lung tissue as it fills up with infectious exudate¬†
    • as in pneumonia
  14. Crackles
    • (rales)
    • abnormal, discontinuous, adventitious lung sounds heard on inspiration
  15. Crepitus
    coarse, crackling sensation palpable over the skin when air abnormally escapes from the lung and enters the subcutaneous tissue
  16. Dead space
    • passageways that transport air but not available for gaseous exhange
    • e.g. the trachea and bronchi
  17. Dyspnea
    • difficult
    • labored breathing
  18. Egophony
    voice sound of "eeeee" heard through the stethoscope
  19. Emphysema
    the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by enlargement of alveoli distal to terminal bronchioles
  20. Fissure
    the narrow crack dividing the lobes of the lungs
  21. Fremitus
    a palpable vibration from the spoken voice felt over the chest wall
  22. friction rub
    a course, grating, adventitous lung sound heard when the pleurae are inflamed
  23. hypercapnia
    • (hypercarbia)
    • increased levels of CO2 in the blood
  24. Hyperventilation
    increased rate and depth of breathing
  25. Hypoxemia
    decreased level of oxygen in the blood
  26. Intercostal space
    space between the ribs
  27. Kussmaul respiration
    a type of hyperventilation that occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis
  28. Orthopnea
    ability to breathe easily only in an upright position
  29. paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
    sudden awakening from sleeping with shortness of breath
  30. Percussion
    striking over the chest wall with short, sharp blows of the fingers to determine the size and density of the underlying organ
  31. Pleural effusion
    abnormal fluid between the layers of the pleura
  32. Rhonchi
    low-pitched, musical snoring, adventitious lung sound caused by airflow obstruction from secretions
  33. Tachypnea
    • rapid, shallow breathing
    • Greater than 24 breaths per min
  34. Vesicular
    the soft, low-pitched, normal breath sounds heard over peripheral lung fields
  35. Vital capacity
    the amount of air following maximal inspiration that can be exhaled
  36. Wheeze
    high-pitched, musical, squeaking adventitious lung sound
  37. Whispered pectoriloquy
    a whispered phrase heard through the stethoscope that sounds faint and inaudible over normal lung tissue
  38. Xiphoid process
    sword-shaped lower tip of the sternum

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