Final Exam
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Percent as fraction
"percenatge of"
 part/total = %
 % * total = part
 part/% = total

Absolute change
 New old
 if given in percents units for absolute change are percentage points

Percent change
newold/old

Absolute and Relative difference
 not absolute change
 percentage more than; percentage less than
 largersmaller/the quantity after "than"

Increasing or decreasing by a percent
 # * (1 + .%) = Pecent increase
 # * (1  .%)= Percent decrease

Successive percentage change
 multiple increases or decreases in percent
 org # * (1 +or .%) = X
 X * (1 +or .%) =Y
 continue as needed

Solve for Original
 Finding original # that has been reduced = new/(1.%)
 Finding original # that has been increased = new/(1+.%)


Ratios
percent more or less than
 Assuming A=5; B=4
 A is what percent more than B =25% more
 B is what percent less than A =20% less

Ratios
percent of
 Assuming A=5; B=4
 A is what percent of B = 125%
 B is what percent of A = 80%

Rate per 10,000
Example death rates of hunting
 600 deaths/2000000 hunters = .0003
 .0003*10,000 = 3
 3 deaths per 10,000 participants

Linear Equation?
 y = mx + b
 where m=slope or rate of change
 b= y intercept or inital value
 yintercept or inital value= y value when x equals 0

Rate of change formula?
B2B1/A2A1

Exponential Formula?
 y = P*(1+orr)^x
 Where P = inital value(value of y when x = 0)
 r = percent change (in decimal form)
 x = independent variable (usually time)
 y = dependent variable

Exponential relationship?
For an increase of 1 in x, y increases or decreases by a constant percent change.

Linear relationship?
as the x variable increases by 1, the y variable increases or decreases by a certain amount (rate of change)

Finding ratio of CPI?
new years CPI/old years CPI = CPI ratio

Converting to constant dollars?
X dollars in old year is worth how much in new year constant dollars
new year CPI/ old year CPI * X dollars = X dollars in new year constant dollars

Annual Inflation rate?
 Percentage change in the CPI in one year from previous year
 for example
 1996 CPI1995CPI/1995 CPI = Inflation rate
162.6157.9/157.9 = 3.0% inflation rate for 1996

Finding monthly payments using excel?
 fx icon in formula bar
 drop down menu > finacial > PMT > box appears
 Enter rate = APR (as a decimal) divided by 12
 Enter NPer (total # of payments)= # of years *12
 Enter Pv (principal) = amount of loan as negative # no commas

Absolute cell reference?
used to lock in a cell reference in a formula when working on tables so that as formula moves down the table it still refers to correct cell.
enter cell reference than hit F4 button