Card Set Information
the process of receving information about and making sense of the world around us
everyone's perception is different b/c we decide which info to notice, how to categorize this iinfo and hot to interpret information wihtin our existing knowledge framework
what is selective attention?
filtering information through senses influences:
-objects characteristics (size, intensity, motion and repetition)
-perceiver characteristics (automated emotional marker process, expectations, self concept and beliefs, you perceive the same thing everytime)
-confirmation bias (screen out information contrary to our beliefs/values, support self concept)
what are the perceptual organization/interpretation?
: mostly nonconscious process of organizing people/things
perceptual grouping principles
: similarity or proximity, closure (filling in missing pieces), perceiving trends
interpreting incoming information
: emotional markers automatically evaluate information
what are mental models in perceptions
broad world-views or "theories in use"
help us to quickly make sense of situations (fill in missing pieces, help to predict events)
problem with mental models
: may block recognition of new opportunities/perspectives
What are three social identity processes
: compare characteristics of our groups with other groups
: similar traits within a group; different traits across groups
: develop less favorable images of people in groups other than our own
what is stereotype
assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category
why does stereotype occur?
innate drive to understand and antcipate others' behavior
what are stereotyping issues? and how do you over them?
overgeneralization (doesn't represent everyone in the category)
basis of systemic and intentional discrimination
it is difficult to prevent stereotype activation, but possible to minimize stereotype application
what are perpectual errors?
: one trait forms a general impression (late for work, everything they do is bad)
: first impressions
: most recent information dominates perceptions
false consensus effect
: overestimate the extent to which others have beliefs and characteristics similar to our own
what are strategies to improve perceptions
awareness of perceptual biases
: close, frequent interaction toward a shared goal, equal status, engaged in meaningful task
a relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior tendency) that occurs as a result of a person's interaction with the environment
what is the difference between explicit and tacit knowledge?
: knowledge that is articulated through language, such as documents
: knowledge acquired through observation and direct experience
what is behavior modification?
we operate on the environment
-alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences
takes on the extreme view that learning is viewed as completely dependt on the environment
what are the ABC's of behavior?
: what happens before behavior (warning light flashes)
: what person says or does (machine operator turns off power)
: what happens after behavior (co-workers thank operator)
what is the social learning theory?
: observing and modeling behavior of others
learning behavior consequences
: observing consequences that others experience
: reinforcing our own behavior with consequences within our control
how do we learn thorugh experience?
most tacit knowledge and skills are acquired through experience and observation
experiential learning steps (engagement with environment, reflecting on experience, experimenting, our reflection in class allow one to think beyond the obvious)
how to develop a learning orientation?
value the generation of new knowledge
recognize mistakes as part of learning
encourage employees to take reasonable risks
how does organizational learning contribute to organizational effectiveness?
: extracting information and ideas from the external environment as well as through insight
: distributing knowledge to tohers across the organization
: applying knowledge in ways that adds value to the organization and its stakeholders