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- psychological, behavioral, and physiological episodes exprienced toward an object, person or event that create a state of readiness
- most emtions occur without our awareness
- moods are lower intensity emotions without any specific target source
- innate responses and learned (pos experience can overshaw the orig. negative)
how are attitudes and emotions different?
- attitudes are judgments about an attitude object, where emotions are experiences related to an attitude object
- attitudes are based mainly on rational logic, while emotions are based on innate and learned response to environment
- attitudes are usually stable for days or longer while emtions are usually experienced for seconds or shorter
what is the traditional model of attitude?
- purely cognitive approach:
- beleifs: established perceptions of attitude object
- feelings: calcualtion of good or bad based on beliefs about the attitude object
- behavior intentions: motivation to act in repsonse to the attitude object
- problem of this is that it ignores important role of emotions in shaping attitudes
how does emotions influence attitudes?
- feelings are shaped by cumulative emotional episodes (not just evaluation of beliefs)
- we listen in on our emotions when determining our attitude toward something
- emtoions also directly affect behavior (e.g. facial expression)
what is cognitive dissonance?
a state of anxiety that occurs when an individual's beliefs, feelings and behaviors are inconsistent with one another (such as when you do something you think you have to do, but don't want to do)
what is emotional labor?
- effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions
- emotional labor is higher when job requires frequent and long duration display of emotions, displaying a variety of emotions and displaying more intense emotions
what is the emotional labor across cultures
- displaying or hiding emotions varies across cultures
- minimal emotional expression and montonic voice in Korea, Japan and Asia
- encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt
what are the emotional labor challenges?
- difficult to display expected emotions accurately, and to hide true emotions
- emotional dissonance: conflict between true and required emotions, potentially stressful with surface acting; less stress through deep acting
define emotional intelligence
- ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and in others
- understand what makes you tick and makes others tick
give the model of emotional intelligence from lowest to highest
- self-awareness: perceiving and understanding the meaning of your own emotions
- self-management: managing your own emotions
- social awareness: perceiving and understanding the meaning of other's emotions
- relationship management: managing other people's emotions
can emotional intelligence be improved?
- emotional intelligence is a set of competencies (aptitudes and skills)
- can be learned, especially through coaching
- EI increases with age, maturity
- a person's evaluation of his or her job and work context
- a collection of attitudes about specific facets of the job
what is the EVLN model of responses to dissatisfaction
- exit: leaving the situation; quitting, transferring
- voice: changing the situation; problem solving and complaining
- loyalty: patiently waiting for the situation to improve
- neglect: reduce work effort/quality, increasing absenteeism
what are the types of organizational commitment and why is organizational commitment important?
- affective commitment: emotional attachment to, identification with and involvement in an organization
- continuance commitment: calculative attachment: stay b/c too costly to quit
how does one build affective commitment
- justice/support: apply humanitarian values, support employee wellbeing
- shared values: values congruence
- trust: employees trust org leaders, job security supports trust
- organizational comprehension: know firm's past/present/future, open and rapid communication
- employee involvement: employees feel part of company; involvement demonstrates trust
what is stress?
- an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's well being
- physiological and psychological condition that prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions
- eustress (healthy stress) vs. distress (unhealthy stress)
what are the consequences of distress?
- physiological: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headaches
- behavioral: work performance, accidents, absenteesim, aggression, poor decisions
- psychological: dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue
describe the job burnout process
- interpersonal and role related stressors cause
- -emotional exhaustion
- -reduced personal accomplishment
- which leads ot physiological, psychological and behavioral consequences
what are stressors?
- causes of stress-any environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on the person
- some common workplace stressors include:
- harassment and incivility, work overload, low task control
how does one manage work related stress?
- -minimize/remove stressors
- -withdraw from the stressor (vacation, rest breaks)
- -change stress perceptions (positive self concept, humor)
- -control stress consequences (healthy lifestyles, fitness, wellness)
- -receive social support