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- the forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behavior
- exerting particular effort level (intensity) for a certain amount of time (persistence) toward a particular goal (direction)
- figure out the needs of others and entice them to get work done with little money
what is employee engagement? how do you get employees engaged?
- emotional and cognitive motivation, a clear udnerstanding of one's role in the organization's vision and a belief that one has the resources to perform the job
- fulfill their needs and expectations, create org commitment and trust containually motivate them
what is the difference between drives and needs?
- drives (primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives, hardwired characteristics)
- -neural states that energize individuals to correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium
- -prime movers of behavior by activating emotion
- needs are goal directed forces that people experience, drive generated emotions directed toward goals, goals fromed by self-concept, social norms and experience
how are feelings and behavior connected?
perceived environment contributes to emotional episodes and beliefs, feelings and behavioral intentions which affects behavior
what is maslow's needs hierarchy theory?
- seven categories capture most needs
- give placed in hierarchy (loweest to highest): physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
- need to know and need for beauty are the other needs
- lowest unmet need has strongest effect
- when lower need is satisfied, next higher need becomes the primary motivator
- self-actualization: a growth need b/c people more rather than less of it when satisfied
what are some problems with maslow's heirarchy model?
- people have different hierarchies-dont progress through needs in the same order (each person has unique needs hierarchy shaped by our self-concept)
- needs change more rapidly than maslow stated
what is the learned needs theory
- needs are amplified or suppressed through self-concept, social norms and past experience
- therefore, needs can be learned (i.e. strengthened or weakened through training)
what are three learned needs?
- need for achievement (need to reach goals, take responsibility, want reasonably challenging goals)
- need for affilation (desire to seek approval, conform to others wishes and avoid conflict, effective executives have lower need for social approval)
- need for power (desire to control one's environment, personalized vx. socialized power)
what is the four drive theory?
- drive to acquire: drive to take/keep objects and experiences, basis of hierarchy and status
- drive to bond: drive for form relatinships and social commitments; basis of social identity
- drive to learn: drive to satisfy curiosit and resolve conflicting information
- drive to defend: need to protect ourselves, reactive (not proactive drive), basis of fight or flight
what are the features of the four drives theory?
- innate and hardwired (everyone has them)
- independent of each other (no hierarchy of drives)
- complete set (no drives are excluded from the model)
what transfoms drive-based emotions into goal directed choice and effort?
social norms, personal values, experiences
what is the expectancy theory of motivation?
effort is directly related to performance is related to outcomes
how to increas E to P
- assuring employees they have competencies
- person job matching
- provide role clarification and sufficient resources
- behavioral modeling
how to increase P to O?
- measure performance accurately
- more rewards for good performance
- explain how rewards are linked to performance
how to increase outcome valences
- ensure that rewards are valued
- indivdualized rewards
- minmize countervalent outcomes
- know the needs then the rewards will fit
- expectation that reward will meet their needs
explain goal setting
- process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives
- short, medium, and long term goals; hit career plans
- depends on how you implement them
what are some effective goal setting characteristics
- specific: measurable change within a time frame
- relevant: within employee's control and responsibilities
- challenging: raise level of effort
- accepted (commitment): motivated to accomplish the goal
- participative (sometiems): improves acceptance and goal quality
- feedback: information available about progress toward goal
what are the characteristics of effective feedback?
- specific: connected to goal details
- relevant: relates to person's behavior
- timely: to improve link from behavior to outcomes
- sufficiently frequent: employee's knowledge/experience, task cycle
- credible: trustworthy source
what is feedback through strenghs based coaching?
- maximizing the person's potential by focusing on their strenghs rather than weaknesses
- motivational b/c
- -people inherently seek feedback about their strengths, not their flaws
- -person's interests, preferences and competencies stabilize over time
what is multisource feedback?
- 360 degree feedback
- -received from a full circle of people around the employee
- -provides more complete and accurate information
Evaluate goal setting and feedback
- goal setting has high validity and usefulness
- goal setting/feedback limitations:
- -focuses employeess on measurable performance
- -motivates employees to set easy goals (when tied to pay)
- goal setting interferes with learning process in new complex jobs
what are the types of organizational justice?
- distributive justice: perceived fairness in outcomes we receive relative to our contributions and the outcomes and contributions of others
- procedural justice: perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources
what are the elements of equity theory?
- outcome/input ratio:
- inputs- what employee contributes
- outcomes- what employees receives
- comparison other:
- person/people against whom we compare our ratio
- not easily identifiable
- equity evaluation
- -compare outcom/input ratio with the comparison other