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- restirctions and explitation.
Approximately one third of all rapes occur before
the age of 12.
Among children o fages 10-14 ____is the leading cause of death.
Children start school during the second stage (preoperational thought) and finish school when they are completing the 4th and final stage of cognitive development, also known as...
- formal operations.
Cognitive devlopment - 3rd stage (concrete operations), children are able to
solve concrete problems using logical problem solving strategies.
Non-liniear dynamic systems theory is also known as
- complexity or chaos theory.
- Explains the changes in one are or aspect of the neurological system may stimulate or interact with other neurological system components in an unpredictable fashion.
is the outer layer of gray matter in human brain thought to be responsible for complex, high-level intellectual functions such as memory, language, and reasoning.
Kohlberg's Conventional Moral Reasoning
morality based on appoval of authorities or upon upholding societal standards, until about age 9-10, sometime after they have cognitive skills for such reasoning.
Based on emotional and social intelligence, something girls possess. Derived from feminist scholarship.
Bicultural or Multicultural Competence
skills children from the nondominant groups must acquire in order to survive and thrive developmentally.
- Children respond to cultural contradictions by identifying with mainstream America.
- (p. 187)
- develping negative attitudes about their subculture group memberships either consciously or subconsciously.
The ability to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustrations, to control impulse and delay gratification, to regulate one's moods and keep distress from swamping the ability to think, empathize, and to hope.
sever physical or psychological injury.
Industry Versus Inferiority (Erikson) - the Industry means
- The Drive to aquire new skills, to do meaningful work.
consists of direct teaching and curriculum inclusion of mainstream moral and social values thought to be universal in a community (i.e. kindness, respect, honest, etc.).
verbal, psychological and social retaliation tactics.
Zone proimal Development
- the theoretical space between the child's current developmental level and the child's level if given access to appropriate models of developmental experiences in social enviroment.
collections of children with unique values and goals.
The ability to engage in sustained, positive, and mutually satisfactory peer interactions.
is a powerful predictor of psychological adjustment.
Complex and fairly stable friendship networks...
- begin to form for the first time in middle childhood.
- (p. 193)
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence is the ability to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting or community. Eight critical intelligences exist: verbal/linguistic, logical/mathmatical, visual/spatial, musical/rythmic, bodily/kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.
process by which two or more cultures remain distint but exchange cultural features, easier than assimilation.
the minority culutre must adapt and become incorporated into the majoriy culture, especially in the school environment.
The system denial of access to assets, economic opportunities, associations, and organizations based on minority status.
the tendency to define one's poverty status in relation to others within one's social environment.
ADHD among school-age children affects approximately
3-12% of kids. Most are diagnosed between 5 and 10.
Autistic Spctrum Disorder
Approximately 3 per 1000 are diagnosed with autism...with boys 3 times more likely to be diagnosed.
Individual Education Plan (IEP)
Charts a course for ensuring that each child achieves as much as possible in the academic realm.
Expanding Influences in Middle Childhood:
- From family nucleus to larger social world
- Family as conduit for historical events, culture, and social structure
- A trend toward earlier age of puberty onset, particularly among girls
- “Sexual precociousness” or sexual victimization
- Child poverty and related school inequities
- Family and community violence
The period prior to commencement of the physiological processes and changes associated with puberty
- The period during which the child begins to experience
- diverse and gradual physical processes associated with puberty.
- According to the Mayo Clinic (2012)
- Being female
- Being African American
- Being obese
- Having other medical conditions that produce abnormal amounts of hormones
- Prolonged stress
Cognitive Development: According to Piaget
- Begins school
- Preoperational Thought – Discovery of rules and regularities that can be applied to new incoming information
* – Ability to solve concrete problems using logical problem-solving strategies
– Ability to solve real and hypothetical problems using abstract concepts: to understand people, situations, and events within their surrounding environments
Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage
- Elementary Grade Thinking (7-11Years)
- Shift from Pre-operational to Operational is gradual
- Limitation: Operations applied only on concrete objects, not abstract manipulation
- Interpret things literally, not figuratively
- Can't understand hypothetical situations
Improvements to Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage
- Less Egocentric
- Can show Reversibility
- Can Decenter - limit to 2 traits, however
- Classification improves
Cognitive Development: Interaction with Moral Development
- Kohlberg’s Conventional Moral Development (age 9-10)
- “Good-Boy/Nice-Girl” Orientation & “Law-and-Order” Orientation
- Seeks approval of others or to
- uphold social standards
- Robert Cole Expanded Understanding
- Moral behavior shaped by daily experiences
- Child’s ability to distinguish between “moral voices” and
- actions of adults
- Carol Gilligan’s sees Gender Differences
- Genders distinct in their approaches to social relationships
- and interactions
- An “ethic of care” emphasis for girls on relationships and
- emotions of others
Conginitve Development: Cultural Identity Development
- For most children who are members of non dominant groups, ethnicity or race may be a central part of their search for identity
- Children of non dominant groups become aware of dual and multiple aspects of identity as they mature: Bicultural or multicultural
Social Development in Mid Childhood: Stepping stone to adolescence
- Children experience middle childhood differently based on:
- Personality differences, differences in the surrounding environment such as family structure and socioeconomic status
- Zone of proximal development: the theoretical space between the child’s current developmental level and the child’s potential level if given access to appropriate models and developmental experiences in the social environment
Special Issues at Mid Childhood: Spiritual Development
- Recent research has found children are capable of possessing awareness of spirituality and of utilizing that awareness to create meaning in their lives
- Spiritual development has been described in various ways in middle childhood:
- a. Mythic-literal stage (fables and clear justice)
- b. Using spiritual threads to create meaning
- c. Spiritual education of children occurs in many settings
- In school settings character education is used to reinforce some of the values in spiritual education