Biology 701 Midterm 1 Review Part 1
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Characteristics of Living Things (organisms)
- a) organised matter
- b) energy
- c) homeostasis
- d) growth and development
- e) movement
- f) response to stimuli
- g) reproduction
- h) adaptation
Organization of Matter
- Elements found in molecules
- Specific structure
- Gives molecule a specific funcion
Group of atoms with specific sturcture, function
List of Macromolecules
- Nucleic acid
Structures inside a cell with a specific function
Basic unit of life
- Single-cell organism
- ex. Paramecium, bacteria
- Organisms composed of multiple cells
- ex. Plants, animals
Group of similar cells
- Body part with a specific structure and function
- Composed of different tissues
- ex. Stomach, Heart, Skin
An individual living thing.
Group of organs with a general/similar function
Members of the same species interacting together
Sum of many populations interacting together
Community interacting with its abiotic (physical) factors
A large terrestrial ecosystem
O -> C6
Sunlight energy is stored in glucose
- Takes place in organelle: cholroplast (found in plant cells)
- Cholroplast contains chlorophyll (molecule that traps sunlight energy)
- INPUTS: Sunlight energy, water, carbon dioxide
- OUTPUTS: Oxygen, glucose
O + 6CO2
ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate: Cellular energy used for cells to do work
(growth, movement, cell division)
- Takes place in organelle: Mitohondrium/Mitochondria
- INPUTS: Glucose, oxygen
- OUTPUTS: Water, carbon dioxide
- Sum of all chemical reactions within a cell or organism
- Catabolism + anabolism = metabolism
Define: Catabolic reactions (catabolism)
- Reactions that break down molecules into smaller ones and release energyEx. Cellular respiration, hydrolysis
Define: Anabolic reactions (anabolism)
- Reactions form larger molecules and store potential energyex. Photosynthesis, dehydration
Food Chain and Energy Transfer within an Ecosystem
- Primary producer (autotrophs, self-feeding. i.e. Plants) -> Primary consumer (i.e. insect herbivore) -> Secondary consumer (i.e. rodent omnivore) -> Tetiary consumer (i.e. Snake, carnivore) -> Quaternary consumer (i.e. falcon top carnivore)
- Self-feeding organism (primary producers)
- i.e. plants produce glucose from photosynthesis
- Organism that feeds on others for energy
- i.e. animals, all consumers
1st law of thermodynamics
Energy is not created or destroyed, it is transformed
2nd law of thermodynamics
When energy is tranfered, some of it is lost to entropy
Based on the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics, what happens to energy as it is trasfered along the food chain?
Only about 10% of the energy stored in the organic matter of each trophic level is converted to organic matter in the next trophic level.
- Maintining the internal milieu constant
- Dynamic equilibrium, healthy balance inside body
- i.e. body temprerature, blood sugar, pH of blood cells, blood volume
Growh and development is controlled by?
What is cytoplasmic streaming?
The movement of organelles within the cytoplasm
What is a stimulus?
A change in the environment. Can be internal (within an organism) or external
What is asexual reproduction?
+ Examples of asexual reproducers?
- One individual producing genetically identical offspring
- ex. bacteria, regeneration, cutting off a plant
What is sexual reproduction?
- Two individuals contributing an equal amount of genetic information, producing genetically different offspring
- ex. animals, pollination of plants
What is unique about the chemical composition of water?
- Water is polar covalentPolar covalent = the unequal sharing of electrons within a molecule
- Oxygen is electronegative
- Hydrogen end is slightly positive
- Oxygen end is slightly negative
What is a hydrogen bond?
- A bond formed between the hydrogen of a one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule. Water molecules bond together with hydrogen bonds.
- One molecule can cling to a maximum of 4 other water molecues.
Properties of Water
- 1) Cohesion
- 2) Adhesion
- 3) Capillary action
- 4) Tensile strength
- 5) High specific heat capacity
- 6) HIgh heat of vaporization
- 7) Versatile solvent
What is cohesion?
- The clinging of water molecules to other molecules using hydrogen bonds
- i.e. water spiders spread their weight over a large surface area so as to not pierce the surface tension of the water
What is adhesion?
- Water's strong tendency to cling with hydrophilic molecules
- Hydrophilic molecules are polar/charged
Water doesn't cling to hydrophobic
molecules (non-polar molecules such as lipids, oil)
What is capillary action?
Tendency of water to go up against gravity within a small diameter tube（vessel)
What is tensile strength?
Water's resitance to being pulled apart due to gravity
Describe water's high specific heat capacity
- Requires a lot of energy to increase the temperature of water because hydrogen bonds must be removed
- Important for homeostasis of body temperature (keeps temperature constant)
Describe water's hig heat of vaporization
- Requires a lot of energy for a molecule of water to turn into vapour
- The remaining surface cools-> evaporative cooling, ex. sweating and panting-> homeostasis of body temperature
How does water travel through a plant?
- 1. Water clings to the soil particles by adhesion2. Water molecules form a chain by cohesion3. Water goes up the root by capillary action, clings to cell wall xylem by adhesion
- -> xylem=tubes in stem of plant4. The chain of water molecules is not broken by gravity due to tensile strength5. Water leaves by transpiration during gas exchange for photosynthesis, this pulls the chain of water up the plant
What are macromolecules?
- Macromolecules are large chaings of organic molecules
- Sythesized by cells or obtained from the diet
What are the 4 large classes of macromolecules?
- 1) Carbohydrates
- 2) Lipids
- 3) Proteins
- 4) Nucleic Acid
What is a monomers called in
c) nucleic acids
- a) monosaccharides
- b) amino acids
- c) nucleotides
What is a monomer?
- A small molecule that usually has a specfic role in the body
- Sub-unit of polymers
- Contains a hydrogen and hydroxyl end
What is a polymer?
A very large molecule composed of many monomers
What are polymers called in
c) neucleic acids
- a) polyssacharides
- b) poypeptides
- c) DNA, RNA
How are polymers formed?
- Joining of monomers to form larger molecules that eventually become polomers
- Process forms water molecules by joining monomers together
How are polymers broken down?
Breaking of large molecules to release monomers usually with the help of a digestive enzyme
- Water is absored and the monomer is "hydrolized"
- Water is used to BREAK molecules
Give an example of a monosaccharide and list its properties
- product of photosynthesis
- blood sugar
- fuel for cellular respiration
What is a disaccharaide?
Sub-unit formed by two monomers linked with a glycosidic linkage
Give two examples of disaccharides and list their components/properties
- Table sugar
- Plants transport in phoem
- Milk sugar
What is a polysaccharide?
- They are carbohydrate polymers: composed of many monosaccharides
- Polsaccharides store energy and are used as structural/building materials
Name four polysaccharides and list their properties
- Composed of many alpha glucose
- Storage of energy in plants
- Diet complexe carbohydrate
- GlycogenComposed of many alpha glucose
- Energy storage in liver and skeletal muscles of animals
- CelluloseComposed of beta glucose
- Cell wall of plant cells
- Structural polysaccharide
- ChitinComposed of amino sugars
- Cell wall of fungi (mushrooms, yeast, molds)
- Exoskeleton of anthropods (insects, spiders, crustaceans)
Can we digest cellulose?
- No, cellulose exits our digestive system in the form of fibers.
- Insoluble fibers lower risk of colon cancer
- Soluble fibers (oats) lower blood cholesterol
Can we digest Chitin?
Yes, which is why it is used in stitches
True/False: Lipids are hydrophilic molecules
False; lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules
Name three classes of lipids
- 1. Fats and oils
- 2. Phospholipids
- 3. Steroids
What is another name for fats and oils?
Triacylglyceral or tryglycerides
How are fats and oils structured/composed?
- Composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains
- Bonded with Ester linkages formed through dehydration
Fats and oils: What are two main types of fatty acid chains?
- 1. Saturated fatty acid chain
- 2. Unsaturated fatty acid chain
What are the properties of saturated fatty acid chains?
They have no double bonds, all carbons in the chan have two hydrogens
Name some sources of saturated fatty acids and its effects on the human body
- Red meat, chocolate, tropical oils
- Increases risk of cardiovascular disease
What are the properties of unsaturated fatty acid chains?
They have double bonds and are better for your health
Name two categories of unsaturated fatty acid chains. List their properties, sources and effects on human health
- Monounsaturated-One double bond
- -Sources: olive oil, canola oil
- - Decrease risk of cardiovascular disease and blood cholesterol
- Polyunsaturated-Many double bonds
- -Decrease cardiovascular diease and symptoms of PMS, menopause
- Increase brain integrity
- Sources: fish, tuna, salmon, flaxseed
- Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
- In a phospholipid: hydrophilic head + two hydrophobic tails
What are phospholipids?
- They are a major component of membranes including cell membranes and membrane-bound organelles
- Make up the phospholipid bilayer!
What is the group that classifies cholesterol and sex hormones?
Steroids, a sub-category of lipids
What is a precursor and how is this related to cholesterol and steroids?
Cholesterol is made in the liver of animals; it is a steroid used to make other steroids, such as estrogen and testosterone. It is thus named a precursor.
How are lipids transported?
- The liver packages them in a lipoprotein for transport
- Lipids are wrapped inside a protein
What is "good cholesterol"?
- HDL (high density lipoprotein)
- Lower blood cholesteral, lower risk of cardiovascular disease
What is "bad cholesterol"?
- LDL (low density lipoprotein)
- Causes cardiovascular disease: plaque, heart attack, stroke
Describe the structure of an amino acid:
Central carbon attached to a caboxyl group (COOH), hydrogen, amino group, sidechain 'R' that varies to make 20 different amino acids
By what kind of linkage are amino acids bonded to make proteins?
Name 8 functions of proteins:
- 1. Structural (building materials)
- 2. Storage (of nutrients)
- 3. Transport
- 4. Hormone
- 5. Receptor for chemical messenger
- 6. Antibody
- 7. Enzymes
- 8. Movement
Name two examples of structural proteins
- Keratin found in hair, nails, hoofs, horns
- Collagen in skin, ligaments, elasticity
Name to examples of storage proteins
- Ovalbumin in eggwhites
- Casein in nuts
Name two examples of transport proteins
- Hemoglobin transports oxygen in red blood cells
- Carrier protein in plasma membrane transports hydrophilic monomers in/out of cell
What is a hormone?
A chemical messenger to maintain homeostasis.
Name three types of hormones
- Steroids -> sex hormones -> estrogen, testosterone
- Bipeptides -> Aspartame, epimephrime
- Protiens -> Insulin, glucagon
What are the basic functions of insulin and glucagon?
They maintain blood sugar (glucose) within homeostatic range
Describe the function of glucagon in more detail:
- Stimulated by hypogycemia (low [glucose] in blood]
- Pancreas secretes glucagon into blood stream
- Glucagon binds to its specific receptor on liver
- Liver hydrolyses glycogen to relase glucose into bloodstream
Describe the function of insulin in more detail
- Stimulated by hyperglycemia (high [glucose] in blood)
- Pancreas secretes insulin in bloodstream
- Insulin binds to its receptor located on target cells and increases uptake of glucose in cells
- Glucose is absorbed by target cells and transformed into ATP
- Liver and skeletal muscles store glycogen
- Extra glucose is converted into fat
Name two receptor proteins for chemical messenger
What is an antibody?
- It is a protein that attacks foreign things
- Is a part of the immune system
- Synthesis is triggered by the presence of an antigen
What is an enzyme?
- They are catalysts: they make reactions happen faster (lowers activation energy of i.e. the digestion/hydrolysis of sucrose)
- Involved in catabolic and anabolic reactions
- They work on a specific substrate that fits into the enzyme's active site
- Saturated when present in the active site
- Induced fit
What are movement proteins?
- Motor Protein moves organelles on the cytoskeleton
- Actin allows sliding of proteins during musculr contraction
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