Biology 701 Midterm 1 Review Part 1

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Biology 701 Midterm 1 Review Part 1
2012-09-29 21:35:11
Biology NYA

Biology Review
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  1. Characteristics of Living Things (organisms)
    • a) organised matter
    • b) energy
    • c) homeostasis
    • d) growth and development
    • e) movement
    • f) response to stimuli
    • g) reproduction
    • h) adaptation
  2. Organization of Matter
    Atoms->Molecules->Organelles->Cells->(Unicellular/multicellular Tissue)->Organs->Systems->Organisms->Populations->Community->Ecosytems->Biomes
  3. Define: Atoms
    • Elements found in molecules
    • Specific structure
    • Gives molecule a specific funcion
  4. Dfine: Moleules
    Group of atoms with specific sturcture, function
  5. List of Macromolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Protiens
    • Nucleic acid
  6. Define: Organelles
    Structures inside a cell with a specific function
  7. Define: Cell
    Basic unit of life
  8. Define: Unicellular
    • Single-cell organism
    • ex. Paramecium, bacteria
  9. Define: Multicellular
    • Organisms composed of multiple cells
    • ex. Plants, animals
  10. Define: Tissue
    Group of similar cells
  11. Define: Organ
    • Body part with a specific structure and function
    • Composed of different tissues
    • ex. Stomach, Heart, Skin
  12. Define: Organisms
    An individual living thing.
  13. Define: Systems
    Group of organs with a general/similar function
  14. Define: Population
    Members of the same species interacting together
  15. Define: Community
    Sum of many populations interacting together
  16. Define: Ecosystem
    Community interacting with its abiotic (physical) factors
  17. Define: Biomes
    A large terrestrial ecosystem
  18. Photosynthesis
    6CO+ 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

    • Sunlight energy is stored in glucose (organic molecule)
    • Takes place in organelle: cholroplast (found in plant cells)
    • Cholroplast contains chlorophyll (molecule that traps sunlight energy)
    • INPUTS: Sunlight energy, water, carbon dioxide
    • OUTPUTS: Oxygen, glucose
  19. Cellular Respiration
    C6H12O6 + 6O-> 6H2O + 6CO2

    • ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate: Cellular energy used for cells to do work (growth, movement, cell division)
    • Takes place in organelle: Mitohondrium/Mitochondria
    • INPUTS: Glucose, oxygen
    • OUTPUTS: Water, carbon dioxide
  20. Define: Metabolism
    • Sum of all chemical reactions within a cell or organism
    • Catabolism + anabolism = metabolism
  21. Define: Catabolic reactions (catabolism)
    • Reactions that break down molecules into smaller ones and release energy
    • Ex. Cellular respiration, hydrolysis
  22. Define: Anabolic reactions (anabolism)
    • Reactions form larger molecules and store potential energy
    • ex. Photosynthesis, dehydration
  23. Food Chain and Energy Transfer within an Ecosystem
    • Primary producer (autotrophs, self-feeding. i.e. Plants) -> Primary consumer (i.e. insect herbivore) -> Secondary consumer (i.e. rodent omnivore) -> Tetiary consumer (i.e. Snake, carnivore) -> Quaternary consumer (i.e. falcon top carnivore)
  24. Define: Autotroph
    • Self-feeding organism (primary producers)
    • i.e. plants produce glucose from photosynthesis
  25. Heterotroph 
    • Organism that feeds on others for energy
    • i.e. animals, all consumers
  26. 1st law of thermodynamics
    Energy is not created or destroyed, it is transformed
  27. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    When energy is tranfered, some of it is lost to entropy
  28. Based on the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics, what happens to energy as it is trasfered along the food chain?
    Only about 10% of the energy stored in the organic matter of each trophic level is converted to organic matter in the next trophic level.
  29. Homeostasis
    • Maintining the internal milieu constant
    • Dynamic equilibrium, healthy balance inside body
    • i.e. body temprerature, blood sugar, pH of blood cells, blood volume
  30. Growh and development is controlled by?
    DNA (genes)
  31. What is cytoplasmic streaming?
    The movement of organelles within the cytoplasm
  32. What is a stimulus?
    A change in the environment. Can be internal (within an organism) or external
  33. What is asexual reproduction? 
    + Examples of asexual reproducers?
    • One individual producing genetically identical offspring
    • ex. bacteria, regeneration, cutting off a plant
  34. What is sexual reproduction?
    • Two individuals contributing an equal amount of genetic information, producing genetically different offspring
    • ex. animals, pollination of plants
  35. What is unique about the chemical composition of water?
    • Water is polar covalent
    • Polar covalent = the unequal sharing of electrons within a molecule
    • Oxygen is electronegative
    • Hydrogen end is slightly positive
    • Oxygen end is slightly negative
  36. What is a hydrogen bond?
    • A bond formed between the hydrogen of a one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule. Water molecules bond together with hydrogen bonds.
    • One molecule can cling to a maximum of 4 other water molecues.
  37. Properties of Water
    • 1) Cohesion
    • 2) Adhesion
    • 3) Capillary action
    • 4) Tensile strength
    • 5) High specific heat capacity
    • 6) HIgh heat of vaporization
    • 7) Versatile solvent
  38. What is cohesion?
    • The clinging of water molecules to other molecules using hydrogen bonds
    • i.e. water spiders spread their weight over a large surface area so as to not pierce the surface tension of the water
  39. What is adhesion?
    • Water's strong tendency to cling with hydrophilic molecules
    • Hydrophilic molecules are polar/charged

    Water doesn't cling to hydrophobic molecules (non-polar molecules such as lipids, oil)
  40. What is capillary action?
    Tendency of water to go up against gravity within a small diameter tube(vessel)
  41. What is tensile strength?
    Water's resitance to being pulled apart due to gravity
  42. Describe water's high specific heat capacity
    • Requires a lot of energy to increase the temperature of water because hydrogen bonds must be removed
    • Important for homeostasis of body temperature (keeps temperature constant)
  43. Describe water's hig heat of vaporization
    • Requires a lot of energy for a molecule of water to turn into vapour
    • The remaining surface cools-> evaporative cooling, ex. sweating and panting-> homeostasis of body temperature
  44. How does water travel through a plant?
    • 1. Water clings to the soil particles by adhesion
    • 2. Water molecules form a chain by cohesion
    • 3. Water goes up the root by capillary action, clings to cell wall xylem by adhesion
    • -> xylem=tubes in stem of plant
    • 4. The chain of water molecules is not broken by gravity due to tensile strength
    • 5. Water leaves by transpiration during gas exchange 
    • for photosynthesis, this pulls the chain of water up the plant
  45. What are macromolecules?
    • Macromolecules are large chaings of organic molecules 
    • Sythesized by cells or obtained from the diet
  46. What are the 4 large classes of macromolecules?
    • 1) Carbohydrates
    • 2) Lipids
    • 3) Proteins
    • 4) Nucleic Acid
  47. What is a monomers called in
    a) carbohydrates
    b) proteins
    c) nucleic acids
    • a) monosaccharides
    • b) amino acids
    • c) nucleotides
  48. What is a monomer?
    • A small molecule that usually has a specfic role in the body
    • Sub-unit of polymers
    • Contains a hydrogen and hydroxyl end
  49. What is a polymer?
    A very large molecule composed of many monomers
  50. What are polymers called in
    a) carbohydrates
    b) proteins
    c) neucleic acids
    • a) polyssacharides
    • b) poypeptides
    • c) DNA, RNA
  51. How are polymers formed?
    Dehydration (condensation)

    • Joining of monomers to form larger molecules that eventually become polomers
    • Process forms water molecules by joining monomers together
  52. How are polymers broken down?

    • Breaking of large molecules to release monomers usually with the help of a digestive enzyme
    • Water is absored and the monomer is "hydrolized"
    • Water is used to BREAK molecules
  53. Give an example of a monosaccharide and list its properties
    • Glucose:
    • product of photosynthesis
    • blood sugar
    • fuel for cellular respiration
  54. What is a disaccharaide?
    Sub-unit formed by two monomers linked with a glycosidic linkage
  55. Give two examples of disaccharides and list their components/properties
    • Sucrose:
    • Glucose+Fructose 
    • Table sugar
    • Plants transport in phoem

    • Lactose:
    • Glucose+galactose
    • Milk sugar
  56. What is a polysaccharide?
    • They are carbohydrate polymers: composed of many monosaccharides
    • Polsaccharides store energy and are used as structural/building materials
  57. Name four polysaccharides and list their properties
    • Starch
    • Composed of many alpha glucose
    • Storage of energy in plants
    • Diet complexe carbohydrate

    • Glycogen
    • Composed of many alpha glucose
    • Energy storage in liver and skeletal muscles of animals

    • Cellulose
    • Composed of beta glucose
    • Cell wall of plant cells
    • Structural polysaccharide

    • Chitin
    • Composed of amino sugars
    • Cell wall of fungi (mushrooms, yeast, molds)
    • Exoskeleton of anthropods (insects, spiders, crustaceans)
  58. Can we digest cellulose?
    • No, cellulose exits our digestive system in the form of fibers.
    • Insoluble fibers lower risk of colon cancer
    • Soluble fibers (oats) lower blood cholesterol
  59. Can we digest Chitin?
    Yes, which is why it is used in stitches 
  60. True/False: Lipids are hydrophilic molecules
    False; lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules
  61. Name three classes of lipids
    • 1. Fats and oils
    • 2. Phospholipids
    • 3. Steroids
  62. What is another name for fats and oils?
    Triacylglyceral or tryglycerides
  63. How are fats and oils structured/composed?
    • Composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains
    • Bonded with Ester linkages formed through dehydration
  64. Fats and oils: What are two main types of fatty acid chains?
    • 1. Saturated fatty acid chain
    • 2. Unsaturated fatty acid chain
  65. What are the properties of saturated fatty acid chains?
    They have no double bonds, all carbons in the chan have two hydrogens
  66. Name some sources of saturated fatty acids and its effects on the human body
    • Red meat, chocolate, tropical oils
    • Increases risk of cardiovascular disease
  67. What are the properties of unsaturated fatty acid chains?
    They have double bonds and are better for your health
  68. Name two categories of unsaturated fatty acid chains. List their properties, sources and effects on human health
    • Monounsaturated
    • -One double bond
    • -Sources: olive oil, canola oil
    • - Decrease risk of cardiovascular disease and blood cholesterol

    • Polyunsaturated
    • -Many double bonds
    • -Omega-3
    • -Decrease cardiovascular diease and symptoms of PMS, menopause
    • Increase brain integrity
    • Sources: fish, tuna, salmon, flaxseed
  69. Define: Amphiatic
    • Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
    • In a phospholipid: hydrophilic head + two hydrophobic tails
  70. What are phospholipids?
    • They are a major component of membranes including cell membranes and membrane-bound organelles 
    • Make up the phospholipid bilayer!
  71. What is the group that classifies cholesterol and sex hormones?
    Steroids, a sub-category of lipids
  72. What is a precursor and how is this related to cholesterol and steroids?
    Cholesterol is made in the liver of animals; it is a steroid used to make other steroids, such as estrogen and testosterone. It is thus named a precursor. 
  73. How are lipids transported?
    • The liver packages them in a lipoprotein for transport 
    • Lipids are wrapped inside a protein
  74. What is "good cholesterol"?
    • HDL (high density lipoprotein)
    • Lower blood cholesteral, lower risk of cardiovascular disease
  75. What is "bad cholesterol"?
    • LDL (low density lipoprotein)
    • Causes cardiovascular disease: plaque, heart attack, stroke
  76. Describe the structure of an amino acid:
    Central carbon attached to a caboxyl group (COOH), hydrogenamino group, sidechain 'R' that varies to make 20 different amino acids
  77. By what kind of linkage are amino acids bonded to make proteins?
    Peptide bond
  78. Name 8 functions of proteins:
    • 1. Structural (building materials)
    • 2. Storage (of nutrients)
    • 3. Transport
    • 4. Hormone 
    • 5. Receptor for chemical messenger
    • 6. Antibody
    • 7. Enzymes
    • 8. Movement
  79. Name two examples of structural proteins
    • Keratin found in hair, nails, hoofs, horns
    • Collagen in skin, ligaments, elasticity
  80. Name to examples of storage proteins
    • Ovalbumin in eggwhites 
    • Casein in nuts
  81. Name two examples of transport proteins
    • Hemoglobin transports oxygen in red blood cells
    • Carrier protein in plasma membrane transports hydrophilic monomers in/out of cell 
  82. What is a hormone
    A chemical messenger to maintain homeostasis.
  83. Name three types of hormones
    • Steroids -> sex hormones -> estrogen, testosterone
    • Bipeptides -> Aspartame, epimephrime
    • Protiens -> Insulin, glucagon
  84. What are the basic functions of insulin and glucagon?
    They maintain blood sugar (glucose) within homeostatic range
  85. Describe the function of glucagon in more detail:
    • Stimulated by hypogycemia (low [glucose] in blood]
    • Pancreas secretes glucagon into blood stream
    • Glucagon binds to its specific receptor on liver
    • Liver hydrolyses glycogen to relase glucose into bloodstream
  86. Describe the function of insulin in more detail
    • Stimulated by hyperglycemia (high [glucose] in blood)
    • Pancreas secretes insulin in bloodstream
    • Insulin binds to its receptor located on target cells and increases uptake of glucose in cells
    • Glucose is absorbed by target cells and transformed into ATP
    • Liver and skeletal muscles store glycogen
    • Extra glucose is converted into fat
  87. Name two receptor proteins for chemical messenger
    • Hormone
    • Neurotransmitter
  88. What is an antibody?
    • It is a protein that attacks foreign things
    • Is a part of the immune system
    • Synthesis is triggered by the presence of an antigen
  89. What is an enzyme?
    • They are catalysts: they make reactions happen faster (lowers activation energy of i.e. the digestion/hydrolysis of sucrose)
    • Involved in catabolic and anabolic reactions
    • They work on a specific substrate that fits into the enzyme's active site
    • Saturated when present in the active site
    • Induced fit
    • Recyclable
  90. What are movement proteins?
    • Motor Protein moves organelles on the cytoskeleton
    • Actin allows sliding of proteins during musculr contraction