Biology 1.2.2- Transport in Animals - The Mammalian Heart

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jpopat
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174283
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Biology 1.2.2- Transport in Animals - The Mammalian Heart
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2012-12-23 09:33:26
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Biology Transport Animals Mammalian Heart
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Biology AS 1.2.2- Transport in Animals - The Mammalian Heart
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  1. List 3 features that determine an organisms need for a transport system 
    • level of activity
    • size, i.e. maximum diffusion distance
    • surface area : volume ratio
  2. What is an open transport system
    When blood is not confined to blood vessels and can wash freely across body tissue
  3. What is a closed transport system
    Blood is confined to blood vessels and cannot wash freely over body tissue
  4. What type of transport system does a mammal have
    Closed, double circulatory system
  5. what is the meaning of a double circulatory system
    Whereby blood passes through the heart twice in one complete circuit of the body
  6. What are the benifits of a closed, double circulatory system
    • efficient and rapid delivery around the body
    • distribution and pressure of blood can be controlled
    • oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood is separated
  7. How many chambers in a mammalian heart
    4
  8. Which ventricle wall is thicker and why
    The left ventricle wall so that the muscle is strong enough to withstand high bolld pressure and give enough force to pump blood around the body
  9. List the 3 parts of the cardiac cycle
    • Atrial systole
    • Ventricular systole
    • Diastole
  10. When describing/explaining the cardiac cycle, how should it be structured
    • My - Muscle
    • Very - Volume
    • Poorly - Pressure
    • Brother - Blood
    • Vomits - Valves
  11. Referring to blood pressure in ther cardiac cycle, why do the AV valves close?
    Ventricular pressure is higher than atrial pressure
  12. Referring to blood pressure in ther cardiac cycle, why do the AV valves open
    Atrial pressure is above ventricular pressure
  13. Referring to blood pressure in ther cardiac cycle, why do the semi-lunar valves close
    when aortic pressure is above venrticular pressure
  14. Referring to blood pressure in ther cardiac cycle, why do the semi-lunar valves open
    when the ventricular pressure is above aortic pressure
  15. Aorta
    Main artery leaving the left ventricle, carrying oxygenated blood round the body
  16. Aortic valve
    A semi-lunar valve that opens during ventricular systole and closes when ventricular pressure drops below aortic pressure
  17. Artery
    A trype of blood vessel that contains thick walls, a small lumen and carries high pressure blood away from the heart
  18. Atrioventricular node (AVN)
    Situated down the septum. The AVN is the only pathway between the atria and the ventricles through which electrical impulses can pass. So following the SAN's impulse and contraction of the atria, the AVN initiates a wave of contraction in the ventricles via the bundle of His and the Purkyne fibres
  19. Atrioventricular valves (AV valves), name both also
    Valves between the the atria and the ventricles that prevent the backflow of blood. The two are tricuspid (right) and bicuspid/ mitral (left) valves
  20. Atria/Atrium
    Atria - plural, atrium - singular. Upper chambers of the heart.
  21. Bicuspid valve
    An AV valve that closes during ventricular systole. This prevents blood flowing back into the left atrium
  22. Capillary
    A type of blood vessel with thin walls made of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells to allow rapid exchange of materials
  23. Cardiac muscle
    Muscle found in the heart, it has its own intrinsic heartbeat (myogenic)
  24. Cardiac cycle
    The sequence of events that make up one heartbeat
  25. Chordae Tendinae
    String-like tendinous chords that prevent the AV valves from turning inside out (inverting)
  26. Circulation
    Movement in a circle or circuit, especially the movement of blood through bodily vessels as a result of the hearts pumping action
  27. Coronary arteries
    Arteries that carry blood to the cardiac muscle
  28. Diastole
    the period when the heart muscle is relaxing and blood pressure is at its lowest, giving time for the atria to fill with blood before atrial systole
  29. Erythrocytes
    Red blood cells
  30. Jugular vein
    Veins in the neck that return blood from the head to the heart
  31. Leukocytes
    White blood cells
  32. Lumen
    The inner open space or cavity of a tubular organ such as a blood vessel or intestine
  33. Myogenic
    Muscle tissue that can generate its own contractions
  34. Pacemaker
    Controls the rhythm of a process
  35. Pulmonary
    Related to the lungs
  36. Pulmonary circuit
    carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
  37. Pulmonary artery
    Artery that carries de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
  38. Pulmonary calvew
    A semi-lunar valve that opens during ventricular systole and closes when ventricular pressure drops below pressure in the pulmonary artery
  39. Pulmonary vein
    Vein carrying de-oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
  40. Purkyne fibres
    Special muscle fibres that conduct the wave of excitation from the AVN down the septum to the base of the ventricles
  41. Semi-lunar valve
    Between the ventricles and the main arteries leading out of the heart to prevent the backflow of blood
  42. Septum
    Wall in the heart that separates oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood in the atria and ventricles
  43. Sino atrial node (SAN)
    A small patch of tissue that acts as the hearts pacemaker. It sends out waves of excitation at regular intervals to initiate contractions
  44. Sub-clavian
    Below the clavicle
  45. Systemic
    The circuit that carries blood around the body, excluding the lungs
  46. Systole
    The stage of the cardiac cycle in which the heart muscle contracts to pump blood
  47. Tricuspid valve
    An atrioventricular valve that closes during ventricular systole. This prevents blood flowing into the right atrium
  48. Tunica externa
    Outer of 3 layers that makes up the walls of arteries and veins. It contains collagen for strength and elastic fibres to stretch and recoil
  49. Tunica intima
    Single layer of squamous epithelial cells that line the walls of arteries and veins. Also known as endothelium
  50. Tunica media
    Middle of 3 layers that make up the walls of arteries and veins. Contains collagen for strength, elastic fibres and smooth muscle
  51. Valve
    A structure in a hollow organ or passage, that closes to prevent the return flow of blood/body fluid passing through it
  52. Vein
    A type of blood vessel containing valves, thin walls and a large lumen and which carries low pressure blood back to the heart
  53. Vena Cava (vena cavae - plural)
    Either of two large veins that carry de-oxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart
  54. Ventricle
    One of the lower chambers of the heart
  55. To find bpm
    60 / seconds in one cardiac cycle
  56. Myogenic
    Initiates its own heartbeat without nervous or hormonal stimulation
  57. Neurogenic
    Muscle that requires nervous or hormonal stimulation before they contract
  58. Sympathetic nerve
    Speeds up heart rate
  59. Vegus nerve
    Slows down heart rate
  60. What does SAN stand for?
    Sino atrial node
  61. Role of SAN
    Small patch of myogenic tissue that acts as the hearts pace maker, initiating regular waves of excitation. It is located in the right atrium.
  62. What does AVN stand for?
    Atrio ventricular node
  63. Role of AVN
    Small patch of conductive tissue, located in the septum near the right atrium, that diverts and delays the wave of excitation.
  64. Fibres near ventricle walls
    Purkyne fibres
  65. Bundle of His
    Conducts signal down the non conductive septum connecting to Purkyne fibres
  66. Benefit of delay between atrial and ventricular systole
    Gives time for ventricles to fill with blood
  67. On electrocardiographs what does the period P represent?
    Spread of electrical wave over the atria (atrial systole)
  68. On electrocardiographs what does the period QRS represent?
    Spread of electrical wave over the ventricles (ventricular systole)
  69. On electrocardiographs what does the period T represent?
    Ventricular relaxation, diastole
  70. Describe the shape of QRS on an electrocardiograph
    A tall spike
  71. When do the AV valves close
    In ventricular systole, when ventricular pressure is higher than atrial pressure
  72. When do semi lunar valves open?
    Ventricular systole, when ventricular pressure is higher than aortic pressure.

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