Restorative Art I Exam 1

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Restorative Art I Exam 1
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Restorative Art I Exam 1
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  1. Describe the glabella.
    The Glabella is the small smooth elevation which lies between the Superciliary Arches.

    It is often described as the eminence just above the root of the nose.
  2. Describe the crista galli.
    means—crest of the cock, or roosters comb

    a noticable vertical projection on the superior portion of the ethmoid bone
  3. Describe the nasal spine.
    Where the two bones of the maxilla join at the inferior margin of the nasal cavity

    They send out small sharp spur, called the Nasal Spine.
  4. Describe the frontal bone.
    The Frontal Bone forms both the forehead and the anterior portion of the roof of the skull.

    The surface of the Frontal Bone abruptly changes direction at the Frontal Eminencies.

    The vertical portion or forehead extends from the eye sockets to the Frontal Eminences.

    The horizontal portion or crown, which is located above the Frontal Eminences ascends superiorly until it reaches the Parietal Bones.
  5. Describe the mastoid process
    The Mastoid Process of the Temporal Bone creates the posterior part of the bone.

    Physiognomically, it is situated under the ear lobe.
  6. Describe the zygomatic bone.
    The Zygomatic Bone is the cheekbone.  Its curvature is convex.  It exists in both the frontal and lateral planes of the face.

    The Zygomatic Bone creates the prominence of the cheek and forms major portions of the inferior and lateral margins of the eye-socket.

     Physiognomically, the greatest width of the anterior plane of the face is measured between the centers of the two Zygomatic Bones.

     (The center is located slightly inferior and lateral to the outer corner of the eye.)
  7. Describe the angle of the jaw.
    ANGLE OF THE MANDIBLE

    The Body of the Mandible and each Ramus unite at nearly right angles. At this juncture we can locate the Angle of the Mandible. (Angle of the Jaw)

    The Angle of the Mandible is chiefly responsible for the geometric form of the head when viewed from the front.
  8. How many bones are in the face?
    • There are 14 bones of the face
    •      6 are in pairs (two in each pair for a total of 12)
    •      2 bones of the face are single bones
  9. How many bones are in the skull?
    • There are 22 bones of the skull
    •      8 are in pairs (two in each pair for a total of 16)
    •      6 bones of the skull are single bones
  10. How many bones are in the cranium?
    • There are 8 bones of the cranium
    •      2 are in pairs (two in each pair for a total of 4)
    •      4 are single bones
  11. Name the bone that is shaped like a bat or butterfly.
    THE SPHENOID BONE

    • Depending upon the point of view the sphenoid bone is described as the "bat shaped bone" some say a butterfly.
    •  
    • The greater wing indeed looks like a wing (or wings), But the lesser wing is described by some anatomists as resembling a pair of horns.

    It helps make up the floor of the cranial cavity, the back of the eye-sockets, and part of the temple area.

    The sella turcica is a landmark of the sphenoid bone.  It holds or cradles the pituitary gland
  12. Name the boundaries (sutures) of parietal articulation.
    • The outer boundaries of parietal articulation are the...
    • Coronal Suture, Squamosal Suture, and Lambdoidal Suture

    Sutures are where the bones "knit" together.
  13. Name the bone that comes from the Latin word for tears.
    LACRIMAL BONES (2)

    Lacrimal comes from the Latin word for tears.

    The Lacrimal bone, the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, It is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit (eye-socket).
  14. Name the bone that comes from the Greek word for “sieve”.
    THE ETHMOID BONE

    The ethmoid bone (from Greek ethmos, "sieve") is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain.

    As such, it is located at the roof of the nose, between the two orbits.

    The bone is lightweight due to a spongy construction. 

    The ethmoid bone is one of the bones that makes up the orbit of the eye. 

    The ethmoid bone is very irregular in shape.

    • Crista galli means—crest of the cock, or roosters comb.
    •  
    • The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone is the flat superior surface of the ethmoid bone and is part of the floor of the cranial cavity.

    The cribriform plate has many small holes.

    The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone is a thin flat plate of bone that extends down in to the nasal cavity on the midline. 

    The perpendicular plate makes up part of the nasal septum. 
  15. Name the bony ridge or ledge on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.
    INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE (2)

    A bony ridge or ledge on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.  Conch means shell.

    The inferior nasal concha (Inferior Turbinated Bone) is one of the turbinates in the nose.

    It extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
  16. Name the bone that takes its name from the Latin word for
    plowshares.
    VOMER (1)

    Vomer is Latin for plowshare.

    The bone is located on the midline in the base of the nasal cavity.

    Along with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone it forms the nasal septum, which is the wall that divides the nasal cavity into right and left parts.
  17. Name the four structures used to establish the correct position of the ear.
    • Four structures employed as guides in replacement and positioning of the reconstructed ear are:
    • Zygomatic Arch, Mandibular Fossa, Mastoid Process,
    • External Auditory Meatus

    They are all part of the Temporal Bone
  18. Name the formation on the sphenoid bone that cradles the
    pituitary gland.
    The sella turcica is a landmark of the sphenoid bone.

    It holds or cradles the pituitary gland
  19. Name the opening in the occipital bone that allows entry of the spinal cord.
    FORAMEN MAGNUM

    The Occipital Bone has a large opening called the Foramen Magnum, which permits entry of the spinal cord.

    In osteology, the word foramen refers to an opening (or hole) in a bone.
  20. Name the structure that is responsible for recession of the central plane of the lower lip?
    THE INCISIVE FOSSA

    Between the Mental Eminence and the incisor teeth, the surface recedes.

    This is the Incisive Fossa.

    The word fossa always indicates a depression or concave recession. 

    The Incisive Fossa is a recession that is most readily seen from the profile view. 

    • Physiognomically, the Incisive Fossa is responsible for the
    • recession of the central plane of the lower lip.
  21. What pair of bones (L&R) creates the lower portion of the sides and base of the cranium.
    TEMPORAL BONES (2)

    The two Temporal Bones create the lower portion of the sides and base of the cranium.

    They are located inferior to the Parietal Bones and anterior to the Occipital Bone.
  22. What part of the sphenoid bone might be described as resembling a pair of horns?
    The greater wing indeed looks like a wing (or wings), But the lesser wing is described by some anatomists as resembling a pair of horns.

     
  23. What are the rounded unimagined prominences at the upper
    part of the forehead?
    FRONTAL EMINENCES (2)

    The Frontal Eminences are rounded un-margined prominences, at the upper part of the forehead.

    They are found on each side of the forehead.  

    They vary in size and prominence.  They may be indistinct and asymmetrical
  24. The widest part of the cranium is measured between what
    boney landmarks?
    PARIETAL EMINENCE

    The two Parietal Bones are smooth and convex in curvature.

    Each is "marked" near its center by a Parietal Eminence.

    The widest part of the cranium is measured the between the Parietal Eminences.

     The Parietal Eminences are located a short distance above the posterior border of the ear.  

    • Though they are rather indistinct, they are
    • never the less an important landmark.
  25. What bony landmark lies above the medial ends of the eyebrows?
    SUPERCILIARY ARCHES (2)

    Physiognomically, the Superciliary Arches lie above the medial ends of the eyebrows.

    They are on the lower part of the forehead
  26. What is the perpendicular structure on each side of the
    mandible?
    RAMUS OF THE MANDIBLE

    The two perpendicular structures on each side of the Mandible
  27. Name the suture between the parietal bones and the frontal bone.
    CORONAL SUTURE

    The two Parietal bones articulate with the frontal bones at the coronal suture.
  28. What bone articulates at the medial line just below nasal
    cavity?
    MAXILLA (2)

    The Maxilla is formed by two large bones of the upper jaw which articulate at the medial line below the nasal cavity.
  29. What bone is the lowest part of the back and base of the skull?
    OCCIPITAL BONE (1)

    The Occipital Bone is the lowest part of the back and base of the skull.

    It curves under the skull and becomes a cradle for the brain.
  30. What structure forms the later and lower rim of the eye socket.
    ZYGOMATICOFRONTAL PROCESS

    Forms the lateral and lower rim of the eye-socket.
  31. What structure is used to establish the widest part of the face?
    ZYGOMATIC BONE (2)

    The Zygomatic Bone is the cheekbone.

    Its curvature is convex

    It exists in both the frontal and lateral planes of the face.

    The Zygomatic Bone creates the prominence of the cheek and forms major portions of the inferior and lateral margins of the eye-socket.

    Physiognomically, the greatest width of the anterior plane of the face is measured between the centers of the two Zygomatic Bones.

    (The center is located slightly inferior and lateral to the outer corner of the eye.)
  32. What is the proper name for the opening of the ear passage?
    EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS

    The External Auditory Meatus is the opening of the ear passage.

    The front border of the ear is in alignment with this opening.

    The External Auditory Meatus is the primary structure for the accurate location and position of a reconstructed ear.
  33. What part of the ethmoid bone extends into the nasal cavity?
    The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone is a thin flat plate of bone that extends down in to the nasal cavity on the midline.

    The perpendicular plate makes up part of the nasal septum.
  34. What is the suture between the paritial and occipital bones?
    LAMBDOIDAL SUTURE

    The two parietal bones articulate with the occipital bone at the lambdoidal suture.
  35. What process of the ramus rests in the mandibular fossa?
    The Condyle of the Ramus is the posterior process which rests in the socket of the Temporal Bone.

    The socket is called the Mandibular Fossa.
  36. What landmark is located on the midline of the mandible?
    BODY OF THE MANDIBLE

    THE MENTAL EMINENCE

    The Mental Eminence is a "marked'' by a faint vertical ridge on the midline of the Body of the Mandible. 

    This divides and encloses the triangular landmark called the Mental Eminence.
  37. What two bones create the greater part of the skull?
    PARIETAL BONES (2)

    The two Parietal Bones create the greater part of the cranium.

    They form the superior portion of the sides and back of the cranium.

    • The two Parietal Bones articulate with the...
    • Temporal Bones, the Occipital Bone, and the Frontal Bones
  38. What structure creates the hinge for the lower jaw?
    MANDIBULAR FOSSA

    The Mandibular Fossa is a small oval depression on the under-surface of the Temporal bone.

    It is located posterior to the Zygomatic Arch

    The Condyle of the lower jaw fits into the socket of the Mandibular Fossa.

    The Mandibular Fossa is the hinge for the lower jaw.

    Dislocation of this articulation may be a corrective treatment for “buck teeth”.
  39. Name the suture between the two parietal bones.
    SAGITTAL SUTURE

    The two Parietal Bones articulate with each other at the Sagittal Suture.

    The Sagittal Suture marks the highest or most superior part of the cranial dome.
  40. Name the superior surface of the ethmoid bone.
    The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone is the flat superior surface of the ethmoid bone and is part of the floor of the cranial cavity. 

    The cribriform plate has many small holes.
  41. What is the eminence found the occipital bone?
    OCCIPITAL PROTUBERANCE

    The Occipital Protuberance is a small jutting eminence, which may be felt through scalp. 

    It may serve as a landmark for finding the Foramen Magnum.

    Occipital comes from the word Occiput which means

    The back or posterior part of the head or skull
  42. What bones are directly inferior to the glabella?
    NASAL BONE (2)

    The two Nasal Bones articulate directly inferior to the Glabella.

    Viewed in profile, they "dip" posteriorly below the Glabella.

    Together they create a dome over the superior part of the nasal cavity.
  43. What bone refers to the roof of the mouth?
    PALATINE BONES (2)

    The palatine bones are two small bones which help form the posterior part of the roof of the mouth. 

    It is from these bones which we get the commonly used word "palate" which refers to the roof of the mouth.
  44. What do we call the sockets for the teeth?
    • BODY OF THE MANDIBLE
    • THE ALVEOLAR PROCESS

    The Alveolar Process of the Mandible has sixteen sockets for the teeth.

    Normally the inferior teeth are set slightly "within" those of the upper jaw to afford a satisfactory "bite". 

    Physiognomically, the position of the lower jaw affects the surface contour of the mouth.

    The lower lip should be slightly posterior to the upper lip.

    In normal repose, the upper and lower teeth are not tightly contacted. 

    There is a slight interval between them.

    Tight contact in posing the teeth destroys the appearance of relaxation.

    Tight facial muscles will change the form of the cheeks.
  45. What bone is shaped like a horseshoe?
    BODY OF THE MANDIBLE

    The Body of the Mandible is curved in the form of a horseshoe and has three important structures.
  46. Name the upper rim of the eye socket.
    SUPRAORBITAL MARGINS (2)

     The Supraorbital Margin forms the upper rim of the eye-socket. 

    It lies inferior to the level of the Superciliary Arches.
  47. Where is the squama located?
    SQUAMA

    The Squama is the vertical portion of the Temporal Bone.

    The Squama is scale-like, thin, and translucent.

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