Sustainable Ecosystems 3

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Author:
lharttrup
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174292
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Sustainable Ecosystems 3
Updated:
2012-09-29 14:59:21
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Sustainable ecosystems science
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Sustainable Ecosystems chapter 3
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  1.  Define Biodiversity
    the number and variety of organisms found in a specific region
  2. What does protect mean?
    • To legally guard from harm a species that is listed as endangered,threatened or of special concern.
    • eg. dont fish dolly varden
  3. what is a biodiversity hotspot?
    • a place where there is an exceptionally large number of species in a relatiively small area
    • eg Carolinian Canada
  4. what is a community?
    all the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem
  5. what is a dominant species?
    • a species that is so abundant that it has the biggest biomass of any community member
    • eg. primary producers; if removed ecosystem will collapse
  6. what is a keystone species?
    • a species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem
    • eg sea otters eat sea urchins, controls kelp levels
  7. what is captive breeding?
    • the breeding of rare or endangered wildlife in controlled settings to increase the poulation size
    • eg, prairie dogs help soil and earth but had low numbers because of ferrets so were bred captively until had a sustainable population size
  8. What is an ecosystem engineer?
    • a species that causes such dramatic changes to landscapes that it creates a new ecosystem
    •  eg. beavers turn small stream to aquatic ecosystem
  9. what is succession?
    • the series of changes in an ecosystem that occurs over time, following a disturbance
    • eg beavers turn forest to flooded forest, to sunny pond to abandoned pond.
    • can benefit many species
  10. what is habitat loss?
    the destruction of habitats which usually results from human activities, or perhaps natural disasters
  11. what is deforestation?
    • the practice of claring forest for logging or other human uses, and never replanting them 
    • may lead to desertification
  12. what is an alien species?
    • a species that is accidentally or deliberately introduced to a new location
    • eg. zebra mussels
  13. what is an invaisve species?
    • a species that can take over the habitat of native species
    • (no natural predators, grow exponentially and eat many other organisms)
    • eg round gobies
  14. what is overexploitation?
    • the use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted.
    • biodiversity is threatened
  15. what is extinction?
    • the death of all the individuals of a species
    • eg platypus, dinosaurs, etc
    • happens to 17 species per hour! :0
  16. what is a biodiversity crisis?
    • the current accelerated rate of extinctinons
    • usually results from actions of humans; deforestation, air and water pollution
  17. what is restoration ecology?
    • the renewal of degraded or destroyed ecosystems through acticve human intervention
    • goal is to stimulate natural processes of regeneration to produce a sustainable or identical ecosystem
  18. what is reforestation?
    the regrowth of a froest, either through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down :)
  19. what is biocontrol?
    • the use of a species to control the population growth or spread of an undesirable species
    • eg european parasitoid was relased to control amont of gypsy moths eating leaves (had escaped from lab)
  20. what is bioremediation?
    • the use of living organisms to clean up conatminated aeras naturally
    • eg certain plants are grown at toxic sites because they clean soils by colleccting poisons in their tissues
  21. what is bioaugmentation?
    • the use of organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils
    • eg. clover is often planted to replenish nitrogen levels in soil (important nutrient for plants)

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