Bio Chp 4

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karrinschultz
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Bio Chp 4
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2012-09-29 16:40:17
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bio chap 4
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  1. Light microscope
    An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend_ visible light to magnify images and project them into a viewers eye or onto photographic film
  2. Cell Theory
    The theory that  all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells.
  3. Electron miccroscope
    An instrument that focuses and electron beam through, or onto the surface of, a specimen. An electron microscope achieves a hundredfold greater resolution than a light microscope.
  4. transmission electron microscope
    A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the internal structure of thinly sectioned specimens.
  5. Plasma membrane
    The membrane that sets a cell off from its surrounding and acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell; consists of a phospholipid bilayer in whcih are embedded molecules of proteina and cholesterol.
  6. Chromosomes
    A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic ccell and most visible during prokaytotic cell. Choromosomes consits of chromatin a combination of DNA and protein
  7. Ribiosomes
    A cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and fuctioning as the site of protein synthesis inthe cytoplasm. the ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleolus.
  8. Cytoplasm
    Everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles.
  9. It takes what kind of microscope to see clearly the structural details of any cell ( esspesially true of prokaryotic cells)
    Electron Microscope
  10. nucleoid
    • no membrane surrounds the DNA
    • A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
  11. What is in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but differ in size and molecular composition.
    Ribosomes
  12. Cell wall
    In prokaryotes, the cell wall protects the cell and is fairly rigid, and chemically complex.
  13. Capsule
    In some prokaryotes, another layer, a sticky ot coat, surrounds the cell wall and further protects the cell surface
  14. In addition to capsules some prokaryotes have ___ which are __
    • Surface projections
    • Short projections called ___ that help attach prokaryotes to surfaces. 



    Pili
  15. Flagella
    A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. The flagella of prokaytoes and eukaryotes differ in both structure and function. Like Cilia, eukaryotic flagella have a 9+2 arrangment of microtubules covered by the cell's plasma membrane.
  16. 1. organelles
    2.and are located in the..
    • 1.A membran-enclosed structure with a specialized function within the cell
    • 2. cytoplasm
  17. Organelles that function in manufacturing :
    • nucleus
    • ribosomes
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • golgi apparatus
  18. Organnelles breakdown or hydrolysis of molecules include:
    • Lysosomes
    • vacuoles
    • peroxisomes ( not part of endomembrane system
  19. Support, Movement, and communication between Cells
    • Cytoskeleton (cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells)
    • Extracellular matrix (animals)
    • Cell junctions
    • Cell wall s ( in plants, fungi and some protists)
  20. Mitochondria are involved in ___ to help the cell
    energy processing
  21. Cellular metabolism
    The chemical activites of the cell
  22. Lysosomes and centrioles are not found in (plant/animal) cells.
    plant
  23. A plant cell has a ___ cell wall ( as do most ___ )
    rigid and thick ( fungi and many protists)
  24. Plant cell walls contain the polysaccharide ___
    cellulose
  25. Plasmodesmata
    • are channels through cell walls that connect adjacent cells.
    • An open channel in a plant cell wall through which strands of cytoplamsm connect from adjacent cells. 
  26. Plant cells have a unique component that stores water and variety of chemicals called:
    central vacuole
  27. ___ are the main components of biological membranes
    Phospholipids
  28. Phospholipid have two distinict regions :
    Negatively charged (hydrophilic) phosphate group (head) AND two non polar, hydrophobic fatty acid tails
  29. Phospholipidss form a two-layer sheet called
    Phosphoipid bilayer
  30. Embedded in this lipid bilayer or attached to its surfaces are:
    diverse proteins
  31. Non ploar molecules can easily pass through its hydrophobic (head/tail)
    Tail
  32. Nucleus
    An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons. The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell
  33. Chromatin
    The complex of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extednded form taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing
  34. Nuclear  envelope
    A double mebmrane, perforated with pores, that encloses the nucleus and separates it from the rest of the eukaryotic cell
  35. Nucleolus
    A structure within the nucleus  of a eukaryotic cell where ribosomal RNA is made and assembled with proteins imported from the cytoplasm to make ribosomal subunits
  36. Free ribosomes
    suspended in the fluid of the cytoplasm
  37. Bound Ribosomes
    attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope
  38. Most of the proteins made on free ribosomes function within the ...
    cytoplasm
  39. Endomembrane system
    A network of membranes insie and around a eukaryotic cell, related either thorugh direct physical contact or by the transferof membranous vesicles.
  40. vesicles
  41. Endoplasmc reticulum (ER)
    An extensice membranous network in a eukaryotic cel, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome- free (smooth) regions.
  42. Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
    • lacks attached ribosomes
    • important in the synthesis of lipids including oils, phospholipids and steroids. 
    • stores calcium ions
  43. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • Ribosomes that stud the outer surface of the membrane, and thus it appears rough in the electron micrograph
    • Makes more membranes. 
    • Makes insulin.
  44. Our liver cells have large amounts of ___ ER
    Smooth
  45. Glycoprotein
    a sugar
  46. Transport vesicle
    a vesivle that is in transit from one part of the cell to another
  47. Golgi apparatus
    • cell may contain a few or hundreds of stacks. 
    • receives and modifies products manufactured by the ER.
    • One side recives while the other releases vacuoles to be sent else where. 
    • Molecular identificaion tags, such as phosphate groups, may be added that surve to mark and sort molecules into different batches for different destinations
    • Entire sacs "mature" as they move from one side to the other
  48. Lysosome
    • made by rough ER and then transferred to the Golgi apparatus for for further processing
    • The Lysosomal membrane encloses a compartment in which digestive enzymes are  provided with an acidic environment and are safely isolated from the rest of the cell.
    • Fuse with food cavuoles and then break down the food, releasing nutrients to the cell. 
  49. With ___ a cell continually renews itself
    Lysosomes
  50. Tay-Saches disease
    • lipid-digesting enzyme is missing, and brain cells vecome impaired by an accumulationof lipids. ( Lysosomes are taking in the food vacuoles but become engorged because there is nothing within the lysosomes to break down the food )
    • Children will only last a few years with this disease
  51. Vacuoles
  52. Central vacuole
    Hydrolytic functions like a lysosome
  53. Peroxisomes
  54. Mitochondria
    converting the chemical energy of foods such as sugars to the chemical energy of a molecule called ATP
  55. ATP stands for
    Adenosine triphosphate
  56. ATP is what
    the main energy source for cellular work. 
  57. Intermembrane space
  58. Mitocondrial Matrix
  59. Chlorplasts
    An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic molecules(sugars) from carbon dioxide and water. 
  60. Stroma
  61. Endosymbiosis
  62. Cytoskeleton
    A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
  63. microfilaments
  64. Intermediate filaments
  65. Microtubules
  66. Centrioles
    A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arrange in a 9 and 0 pattern. An Animal usually has a centrosome with a pair of centrioles involved in cell division
  67. Basal body
  68. Extra cellular matrix (ECM)
  69. Integrins
  70. Tight junctions
    The membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed against each other, knit together by proteins. Forming continuous seals around cells, tight junctions prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells. Such a sheet of tissue lines the digestive tract, preventing the contents from leaking into the surroundsing tissues
  71. Anchoring junctions
    Function like rivets fastening cells together into stron sheets. Inermediate filaments made of sturdy keratin proteins anchor thes junctions in the cytoplasm. Anchoring junctions are common in tissues subject to stretching or mechanical stress, such as skin and heart muscle.
  72. Gap junctions
    (communicating junctions) are channels that allow small molecules to flow through protein lined pores between neighboring cells. 
  73. Plasmodesmata
  74. Manufacturing: Nucleus Role
    DNA sysnthesis; RNA synthesis ; assembly of ribosomal subunits ( in nucleoli)
  75. Manufacturing: Ribosomes Role
    Polypeptide (protein) synthesis
  76. Manufacturing: Rough ER role
    Synthesis of membrane lipids an dproteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; formation of transport vesicles
  77. Manufactuing: Smooth ER role
    Lipid synthesis; detoxification in liver cells; calcium ion storage
  78. Manufacturing: Golgi apparatus Role
    modification and transport of macromolecules; formation of lysosomes and transport vesicles
  79. Breakdown: Lysosomes ( in animal cells and some protists)
    Digestion of ingested food, bacteria, and a cell's damaged organelles and macromolecules for recycling
  80. Breakdown: Vacuoles
    Digestion (like lysosomes); storage of chemicals; cell enlargement; water balance
  81. Breakdown: peroxisomes ( not part of endomembrane system)
    Diverse metabolic processes, with breakdown of H2O2 by-product
  82. Energy processing: Mitochondria
    Conversion of Chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP
  83. Energy Processing: Chloroplasts (in plants and some protists) 
    Conversion of light energy to chemica energy of sugars
  84. Support, Movement and Communication between Cells: Cytoskeleton ( including ___) 
    • Cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells.
    • maintenance of cell shape; anchorage for organelles; movement of organelles within cells; cell movement; mechanical transmission fo signals from exterior of cell to interior
  85. Support, Movement and Communication between Cells: Extracellular matrix (in animals)
    Binding of cells in tissues; surface protection;regulation of cellular activites
  86. Support, Movement and Communication between Cells: Cell junction
    Communication between cells; binding of cells in tussues
  87. Support, Movement and Communication between Cells: Cell walls ( in plants, fungi, and some protists)
    Maintenacne of cell shape and skeletal support;s urface protection; binding of cells in tissues

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