An optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend_ visible light to magnify images and project them into a viewers eye or onto photographic film
The theory that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells.
An instrument that focuses and electron beam through, or onto the surface of, a specimen. An electron microscope achieves a hundredfold greater resolution than a light microscope.
transmission electron microscope
A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the internal structure of thinly sectioned specimens.
The membrane that sets a cell off from its surrounding and acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell; consists of a phospholipid bilayer in whcih are embedded molecules of proteina and cholesterol.
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic ccell and most visible during prokaytotic cell. Choromosomes consits of chromatin a combination of DNA and protein
A cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and fuctioning as the site of protein synthesis inthe cytoplasm. the ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleolus.
Everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles.
It takes what kind of microscope to see clearly the structural details of any cell ( esspesially true of prokaryotic cells)
no membrane surrounds the DNA
A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
What is in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but differ in size and molecular composition.
In prokaryotes, the cell wall protects the cell and is fairly rigid, and chemically complex.
In some prokaryotes, another layer, a sticky ot coat, surrounds the cell wall and further protects the cell surface
In addition to capsules some prokaryotes have ___ which are __
Short projections called ___ that help attach prokaryotes to surfaces.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. The flagella of prokaytoes and eukaryotes differ in both structure and function. Like Cilia, eukaryotic flagella have a 9+2 arrangment of microtubules covered by the cell's plasma membrane.
2.and are located in the..
1.A membran-enclosed structure with a specialized function within the cell
Organelles that function in manufacturing :
Organnelles breakdown or hydrolysis of molecules include:
peroxisomes ( not part of endomembrane system
Support, Movement, and communication between Cells
Cytoskeleton (cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells)
Extracellular matrix (animals)
Cell wall s ( in plants, fungi and some protists)
Mitochondria are involved in ___ to help the cell
The chemical activites of the cell
Lysosomes and centrioles are not found in (plant/animal) cells.
A plant cell has a ___ cell wall ( as do most ___ )
rigid and thick ( fungi and many protists)
Plant cell walls contain the polysaccharide ___
are channels through cell walls that connect adjacent cells.
An open channel in a plant cell wall through which strands of cytoplamsm connect from adjacent cells.
Plant cells have a unique component that stores water and variety of chemicals called:
___ are the main components of biological membranes
Phospholipid have two distinict regions :
Negatively charged (hydrophilic) phosphate group (head) AND two non polar, hydrophobic fatty acid tails
Phospholipidss form a two-layer sheet called
Embedded in this lipid bilayer or attached to its surfaces are:
Non ploar molecules can easily pass through its hydrophobic (head/tail)
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons. The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell
The complex of DNA and proteins that constitutes eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extednded form taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing
A double mebmrane, perforated with pores, that encloses the nucleus and separates it from the rest of the eukaryotic cell
A structure within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell where ribosomal RNA is made and assembled with proteins imported from the cytoplasm to make ribosomal subunits
suspended in the fluid of the cytoplasm
attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope
Most of the proteins made on free ribosomes function within the ...
A network of membranes insie and around a eukaryotic cell, related either thorugh direct physical contact or by the transferof membranous vesicles.
Endoplasmc reticulum (ER)
An extensice membranous network in a eukaryotic cel, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome- free (smooth) regions.
Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
lacks attached ribosomes
important in the synthesis of lipids including oils, phospholipids and steroids.
stores calcium ions
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes that stud the outer surface of the membrane, and thus it appears rough in the electron micrograph
Makes more membranes.
Our liver cells have large amounts of ___ ER
a vesivle that is in transit from one part of the cell to another
cell may contain a few or hundreds of stacks.
receives and modifies products manufactured by the ER.
One side recives while the other releases vacuoles to be sent else where.
Molecular identificaion tags, such as phosphate groups, may be added that surve to mark and sort molecules into different batches for different destinations
Entire sacs "mature" as they move from one side to the other
made by rough ER and then transferred to the Golgi apparatus for for further processing
The Lysosomal membrane encloses a compartment in which digestive enzymes are provided with an acidic environment and are safely isolated from the rest of the cell.
Fuse with food cavuoles and then break down the food, releasing nutrients to the cell.
With ___ a cell continually renews itself
lipid-digesting enzyme is missing, and brain cells vecome impaired by an accumulationof lipids. ( Lysosomes are taking in the food vacuoles but become engorged because there is nothing within the lysosomes to break down the food )
Children will only last a few years with this disease
Hydrolytic functions like a lysosome
converting the chemical energy of foods such as sugars to the chemical energy of a molecule called ATP
ATP stands for
ATP is what
the main energy source for cellular work.
An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic molecules(sugars) from carbon dioxide and water.
A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arrange in a 9 and 0 pattern. An Animal usually has a centrosome with a pair of centrioles involved in cell division
Extra cellular matrix (ECM)
The membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed against each other, knit together by proteins. Forming continuous seals around cells, tight junctions prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells. Such a sheet of tissue lines the digestive tract, preventing the contents from leaking into the surroundsing tissues
Function like rivets fastening cells together into stron sheets. Inermediate filaments made of sturdy keratin proteins anchor thes junctions in the cytoplasm. Anchoring junctions are common in tissues subject to stretching or mechanical stress, such as skin and heart muscle.
(communicating junctions) are channels that allow small molecules to flow through protein lined pores between neighboring cells.
Manufacturing: Nucleus Role
DNA sysnthesis; RNA synthesis ; assembly of ribosomal subunits ( in nucleoli)
Manufacturing: Ribosomes Role
Polypeptide (protein) synthesis
Manufacturing: Rough ER role
Synthesis of membrane lipids an dproteins, secretory proteins, and hydrolytic enzymes; formation of transport vesicles
Manufactuing: Smooth ER role
Lipid synthesis; detoxification in liver cells; calcium ion storage
Manufacturing: Golgi apparatus Role
modification and transport of macromolecules; formation of lysosomes and transport vesicles
Breakdown: Lysosomes ( in animal cells and some protists)
Digestion of ingested food, bacteria, and a cell's damaged organelles and macromolecules for recycling
Digestion (like lysosomes); storage of chemicals; cell enlargement; water balance
Breakdown: peroxisomes ( not part of endomembrane system)
Diverse metabolic processes, with breakdown of H2O2 by-product
Energy processing: Mitochondria
Conversion of Chemical energy of food to chemical energy of ATP
Energy Processing: Chloroplasts (in plants and some protists)
Conversion of light energy to chemica energy of sugars
Support, Movement and Communication between Cells: Cytoskeleton ( including ___)
Cilia, flagella, and centrioles in animal cells.
maintenance of cell shape; anchorage for organelles; movement of organelles within cells; cell movement; mechanical transmission fo signals from exterior of cell to interior
Support, Movement and Communication between Cells: Extracellular matrix (in animals)
Binding of cells in tissues; surface protection;regulation of cellular activites
Support, Movement and Communication between Cells: Cell junction
Communication between cells; binding of cells in tussues
Support, Movement and Communication between Cells: Cell walls ( in plants, fungi, and some protists)
Maintenacne of cell shape and skeletal support;s urface protection; binding of cells in tissues