Heart

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Author:
callmelauren122001@yahoo.com
ID:
174328
Filename:
Heart
Updated:
2012-10-03 18:52:54
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Heart
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Heart
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  1. Precordium
    Anterior chest wall directly over heart and great vessels 
  2. Mediastinum
    Middle thoracic cage and lungs, heart and vessel location
  3. Great vessels
    • Bunched above heart
    • Superior vena cava, Aorta, Pulminary veins
  4. Pulmonary Artery
    Leaves the right ventricle, bifurcates and carries venous blood to lungs
  5. Superior & Inferior Vena Cava
    Return unoxygenated venous blood to right side of heart 
  6. Pulminary Veins
    Returns freshly oxygented blood to left side of heart
  7. Aorta 
    Carries oxygenated blood to the body
  8. Pericardium
    • layer of heart
    • tough, fibrous, double walled sac that protects the heart 
  9. Myocardium
    • Muscular wall of the heart 
    • it does the pumping 
  10. Endocardium
    thin layer of endothelial tissue that lines the inner surface of the heart chambers and valves
  11. Right side of heart 
    Pumps blood into the lungs 
  12. Left side of heart 
    Pumps blood into the body
  13. Atrium
    thin walled reservoir for holding blood
  14. Ventricle 
    Thick walled ventricle is the muscular pumping chamber 
  15. Valves
    • seperates the four chambers, swinging door structure, prevents backflow of blood
    • can ONLY open one way
    • open passively in responce to pressure
  16. Atrioventricular
    • Two
    • seperate atria and the ventricles 
    • Tricuspid, Bicuspid (mitral)
  17. Tricuspid
    Right AV atrioventricular valve
  18. Bicuspic (mitral)
    left atrioventricular valve
  19. Chordae tendineae 
    Valves thin leaflets are anchored by this collagenouse fiber
  20. Diastole
    The filling phase, opens AV atrioventricular valve to fill with blood
  21. Systole
    the pumping phase, the AV atrioventricular valves close to prevent regergitation of blood back to atria 
  22. Semilunar valves SL
    • between ventricles and arteries 
    • has three cusps
    • Pulmonic & Aortic
    • open during SYSTOLE-pumping
  23. Pulmonic valve 
    right side of heart 
  24. Aortic valve
    left side of heart
  25. Blood flow from liver
    • flows up to RA through inferior vena cava metting blood from head through superior vena cava
    • enters RA, throught tricuspid valve to RV
    • from RV to pulmonary artery to lung
    • lung oxygenates blood then goes to pulmonary veins then to LA throught mitral valve to LV to aorta then to body!!!!
  26. Cardiac cycle 
    rhythmic movement of blood throught heart
  27. Diastole phase
    ventricles relax and fill with blood
  28. Systole phase 
    • the heart contraction 
    • S1 sound closer of AV atrioventricular valve
  29. Isometric contraction
    When ALL valves are closed for a few moments and pressure is building
  30. Isometric relaxation
    when ALL valves are closed and the ventricles are relaxed
  31. S1 sound 
    closure of AV valves, signals systole to begin
  32. S2 sound
    closure of the semilunar valves signals the end of systole
  33. Respiration effects systole 
    • moRe to the Right heart Less to the Left!! 
    • more respiration increases systole to right side of heart
  34. S3 sound
    • third heart sound 
    • after S2 ventricular filling makes vibrations 
  35. S4 sound 
    just before S1 ventricle is resistant to filling 
  36. Murmur 
    • turbulent blood flow and collision currents 
    • blood velocity increases
    • blood viscosity decreases
    • structural defect 
  37. ECG
    • electrocardiograph 
    • electricity spread to body surface
    • PQRST waves 
  38. P wave 
    depolarization of atria 
  39. PR interval
    beginning of P wave to beginning of QRS complex
  40. QRS complex 
    depolarization of ventricles 
  41. T wave
    repolarization of ventricles
  42. Cardiac Output
    • equals each systole pump (R)per min 
    • (stroke volume)
    • CO=SVxR
  43. Preload
    • venous return that builds during distole
    • length to which the ventricular muscle is stretched at the end of diastole just before contraction
  44. Afterload
    opposing pressure the ventricle must renerate to open aortic valve against higher aortic pressure 
  45. Carotid artery location
    in the groove between the trachea and the sternomatoid muscle
  46. Internal jugular 
    deep and medial to the sternomastoid muscle
  47. External jugular vein
    lateral to the sternomastoid muscle above the clavicle 
  48. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity 
    condition which pressure over the carotid sinus leads to a decreased heart rate decreased BP ccerebral ischemia with syncope
  49. Bruit 
    blowing sound swishing sound indicates blood flow turbulence 
  50. CVP
    central venous pressure
  51. Top of heart is?Base Bottom of heart is?Apex-5th intercostal space left midclavicularPrecordiumArea of anterior chest that cover heart and great vessels Atria position in chesttilted back below sternumVertricle postion in chest tilted forward in left chest area-apex 5th ribUnoxygenated blood Superior vena cavaR atriumTricuspid valveR ventricle Pulmonic valve Pulmonary artery to lung for O2Oxygenated blood Pulmonary veins L atriumMitral valveL vetricle Aortic valve Aorta Body2 Coronary arteriesLeft and Right LCA, RCAblood flow to myocardium occurs during diastoleto keep coronary artery pressure diastole must be 60mmHgDiastoleVentricles relax and fill with bloodDub=S2 closure of semilunar valvesSystoleVentricles contract and pump blood into pulmonary and systemic arteriesLub=S1 closing of AV valve
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  52. Murmurs
    Imporper closing and opening of valves SA nodeInitiates electrical impulse of heart contraction
  53. Systole
    • Ventricles contract and pump blood into pulmonary and systemic arteries
    • Lub=S1 closing of AV valve
  54. Diastole
    • Ventricles relax and fill with blood
    • Dub=S2 closure of semilunar valves
  55. 2 Coronary arteries
    • Left and Right LCA, RCA
    • blood flow to myocardium occurs during diastole
    • to keep coronary artery pressure diastole must be 60mmHg
  56. Oxygenated blood 
    • Pulmonary veins 
    • L atrium
    • Mitral valve
    • L vetricle 
    • Aortic valve 
    • Aorta 
    • Body
  57. Unoxygenated blood 
    • Superior vena cava
    • R atrium
    • Tricuspid valve
    • R ventricle 
    • Pulmonic valve 
    • Pulmonary artery to lung for O2
  58. Vertricle postion in chest 
    tilted forward in left chest area-apex 5th rib
  59. Precordium
    • Area of anterior chest that cover heart and great vessels 
    • Atria position in chest
    • tilted back below sternum

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