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What is the big organization for Exercise Physiologists?
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
Name three organizations for exercise physiologists other than ACSM
- American society of exercise physiologists (ASEP)
- AMA-American Medical Association
- Association for Fitness in Business
What are the three classifications of certification programs?
- Health Fitness Certifications
- Clinical Certifications
- Specialty Certifications
What is kinesiology?
Study of human movement
define exercise physiology
how body responds and adapts to exercise
What is the difference between motor learning and motor development?
Motor learning: how to learn psychomotor skills (muscle memory)
Motor Development: growth and development
What is biomechanics?
study of functions of the body
what is pedagogy?
What's the difference between acute and chronic?
- Acute: adjusts-a single bout of exercise
- Chronic: adapts-training (repeated bouts of exercise)
Is is required to have an MS or PhD to be an exercise physiologist?
What does FITT stand for?
What are the 2007 recommendations to improve and maintain health for healthy adults?
- Moderate to brisk activity-2.5 hr/wk OR
- Intense aerobic activity-1.25hr/wk PLUS
- strength training-2d/wk (8-10 exercises, 8-10 reps)
Who's Claudius Galen?
Who's Archibald Hill?
- Studied energy metabolism
- First studies on runners
Who's John S. Haldane?
Developed methods to measure oxygen use during exercise
Who founded the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory?
- Lawrence J. Henderson
- Directed by David Bruce Dill
What was the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory famous for?
focused on the physiology of human movement and the effects of environmental stress on exercise.
Spawned labs all over the world
Who is Erik Hohwu-Christensen?
published important early research on carbohydrate and fat metabolism
who is Per-Olof Astrand?
Conducted studies on physical fitness and endurance capacity
Who is Janas Bergstrom?
reintroduced biopsy needle to study human muscle biochemistry (used for fiber typing)
Who's Peter karpovich?
russian immigrant who studied at the HFL
Who's Thomas K Cureton?
- studied physical activity as far as health promotion
- University of Illinois
What is the primary changable risk factor for CAD?
What are things that can be used to monitor exercise during testing?
- HR and ECG
- Breathing Rate
- Skin and core temp.
- EMG (muscle)
- VO2 (volume of O2 consumed, how much O2 expired, how much CO2 expired, concentration of O2)
What are some examples of controls in testing?
- ambient temperature
- RH (humidity)
- circadian rhythms
- menstrual cycle
- food intake
- sleep patterns
What is an ergometer and what are the types?
- measure of work
- -mechanical friction
- -electrical resistance
- rowing and kayak
What is the difference between cross sectional and longitudinal research?
- cross-sectional: examines many subjects at one period of time
- longitudinal: examines by studying over time (most prefered, but not most accurate)
What are the three types of muscle and which are striated?
- skeletal: striated and voluntary
- cardiac: striated and controls itself
- smooth: not striated and involuntary
What is the structure of a muscle, inclusing the connective tissue (CNT) from deep to superficial?
myofibril - muscle fiber - endomysium - bundles of fibers (fasciculi) - perimysium - muscle - epimysium
What is the plasmalemma?
cell membrane; fuses with tendon, conducts action potential, maintains pH, transports nutrients
What are tendons?
connect muscle to bone
What are the two types of nerves and what percentage of each are in the muscle?
- Motor (efferent): 60%
- Sensory (afferent): 40%
What is included in the macrostructure of the muscle?
- transverse tubules
- sarcoplasmic reticulum
What is a contractile unit of a muscle called and what is included?
sarcomere: myosin (thick) and actin (thin)
What are the "bands" and "lines" associated with a myofibril?
- I band: light area (actin) only
- A band: dark area consisting of both actin and myosin
- Z line: middle of I band- boundaries of sarcomeres
- M line: line down the middle of a sarcomere
- H zone: all thick (myosin)
What other minimal names are associated with a sarcomere?
What is the SR?
sarcoplasmic reticulum: network of tubules and vesicles that store calcium
What two proteins are associated with actin?
- troponin: spherical molecules that calcium attaches to
- tropomyosin: thin strands that loop
What are the five steps in the muscular contraction process?
- 1. Rest: ATP bound to cross-bridges, tropomyosin covers active site
- 2. Excitation-Coupling: impulse reaches nerve, ACh released down T-tubules, Calcium released from SR, calcium bound to troponin moving tropomyosin off active site, coupling of actin and myosin
- 3. Contraction: ATP converted to ADP, phosphate, and energy, causing contraction of myosin head
- 4. Recharging: repetition of contraction and breaking of myosin head with active sites
- 5. Relaxation: Calcium actively pumped out and muscle returns to normal length.
What are the three types of muscular contractions?
- Concentric: flexion
- Isometric (static): unchanged
- Eccentric: extension of muscle, more force produced
When is the force greatest in contraction of a muscle?
- 20% greather than resting length (30%) = 50%
- Also, the faster the velocity of a lever arm, the lower the force
What is a motor unit?
- alphamotor nueron and all the fibers it innovates.
- one nerve innovates a certain number of muscle fibers and all trigger at the same time
What are the two types of twitch fibers in a muscle?
- type I slow twitch: red, <300 fibers
- type II fast twitch: white >300 fibers
- IIa: oxidative-glycolytic
- IIx: glycolytic, fastest
- IIc: unclassified, small %
What is the size principle in association with muscle fibers?
small motor units are recruited first, type I first
Is hypertrophy or hyperplasia more common in humans? define both
- hypertrophy: growing of muscle cells, more common
- hyperplasia: splitting of muscle cells, less common
What is the idea behind muscle spindles?
- cause the muscle to contract when stretched
- ex. when patellar tendon hit, muscle and muscle spindle stretch, sending impulses to the CNS, which causes fibers to contract
- ex. when a book is placed on the hand, muscle spindle feels pressure, and so the muscles contract to lift book up
What is the idea behind the Golgi Tendon Organs (GTO)?
- proprioceptors embedded in tendons that are sensitive to tension and fulfill a protective function.
- ex. arm wrestling, when a strain is found, the muscle relaxes and you lose. Also causes contraction of antagonist a lot of the time
What is the difference between a muscle spindle and the golgi tendon organs?
- muscle spindle: facilitory-causes contraction
- GTO: inhibitory-causes relaxation