Head and Neck Anatomy

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glickj
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174344
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Head and Neck Anatomy
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2012-09-30 15:05:29
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head neck anatomy muscles tmj vascular
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muscles,tmj,vascular
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  1. Both the origin of the frontal belly of the epicranial muscle and the insertion of the occipital belly are at the?
    epicranial aponeurosis
  2. What are the muscles of mastication?innervated by?
    • masseter
    • temporalis
    • medial pterygoid
    • lateral pterygoid
    • all are innervated by cranial nerve V(specifically mandibular division V3)
  3. The origin of a muscle is considered to be?
    least movable muscle end
  4. Muscle pair divided by a medium septum?
    transverse
  5. Paired muscles that unite medially to form the floor of the mouth?
    mylohyoid
  6. Muscle group that serves to depress the hyoid bone?
    infrahyoid muscles
  7. Muscle that has two bellies, which gives it two origins?
    • lateral pterygoid
    • 2 origins:(2 heads)
    • 1.superior head-inferior surface of the greater wing of sphenoid bone
    • 2. inferior head-lateral side of lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone
  8. Most commonly used muscle when patient closes lips around the saliva ejector?
    orbiculari oris(also for kissing & pouting)
  9. Muscle group involved in both elevating hyoid bone and depressing the mandible?
    Suprahyoid muscles
  10. Infrahyoid muscles are innervated by what kind of nerves?
    cervical
  11. Which muscle can make patient's oral vestibule more shallow, therefore making dental work more difficult?
    mentalis
  12. Muscles of facial expression are innervated by?
    facial nerve(VII)
  13. Muscle groups that insert directly on the hyoid bone?
    geniohyoid, stylohyoid, and omohoid muscles
  14. Muscle used when patient grimaces?
    risorius
  15. Extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
    • Named for origin & insertion, all move tongue
    • Genioglossus-origin:genial tubercles, insert:base of tongue, action:(dual)protusion of tongue outside oral cavity & depression of tongue
    • Styloglossus-origin:styloid process, insert:lateral side of tongue, action:retracts tongue posteriorly & speriorly
    • Hyoglossus-origin:hyoid bone, insert:lat.side of tongue, action:depress tongue
    • all innervated by cranial nerve XII (Hypoglossal)
  16. Which muscle of facial expression compresses the cheeks during chewing, asisting the muscles of mastication?
    buccinator
  17. The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle inserts where?
    on the median pharyngeal raphe
  18. Masseter muscle originates from?
    the zygomatic arch
  19. Muscle that forms anterior facial pillar in oral cavitiy?
    palatoglossus
  20. What happens when both sternocleidomastoid muscles are used?
    head flexes at neck
  21. 3 muscles that assist in smiling?
    • zygomatic major & minor
    • levator anguli oris muscle
  22. Which muscle is located just deep to the skin on the neck?
    platysma
  23. Which muscle when contracted cause a frown(2)?
    • depressor anguli oris muscle
    • corrugator supercilii
  24. Intrinsic muscles of the tongue?
    • Named for orientation, all shape tongue:
    • Superior and inferior longitudinal(extend length of tongue)-shorten & thicken tongue
    • Transverse(horizontal, extend from side to side)- narrow tongue
    • Vertical(extend superiorly to inferior)- flatten tongue
    • all innervated by cranial nerve XII (Hypoglossal)
  25. Muscles of the tongue are innervated by?
    Cranial nerve XII
  26. All muscles of the pharynx are known to be involved in?
    • middle ear function
    • speaking
    • swallowing
  27. The  posterior belly of the digastric muscle is also condidered to be?
    posterior suprahyoid muscle
  28. What nerve innervates the temporalis muscle?
    mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve
  29. Which muscles activity helps to prevent tongue from sinking back & obstructing respiration?
    genioglossus
  30. Basic movements performed by TMJ?
    gliding and rotational movement
  31. What landmark associated with the TMJ is located on mandible?
    condyle
  32. Muscle involved in lateral deviation of the mandible?
    lateral pterygoid muscle
  33. Protrusion is action of the mandible that primarily involves?
    bringing lower jaw forward
  34. The temporalis muscles assists the lower jaw in what movements?
    mandibular elevation and retraction
  35. Which ligament associated with TMJ has the inferior alveolar nerve decend nearby to gain access to mandibular foramen?
    sphenomandibular ligament (from sphenoid bone to lingula of mandible)- is peirced during alvelor nerve block & resists excessive movements in protrusion & lateral excursions
  36. Which ligament associated with the TMJ reinforces the joint capsule?
    • temporomandibular(joint)ligament
    • (from zygomatic process of temporal bone, to the head of the condyle) - resists excessive retraction/retrusion of mandible posteriorly
  37. Area of the mandible that articulates with the temporal bone at the TMJ?
    condyle
  38. Facts about TMJ disc?
    • articular disc or meniscus
    • in between head of condyle & mandibular fossa
    • divides TMJ into upper and lower synovial cavity
    • membranes lining these cavities secrete synovial fluid that lubricate joint
    • as person ages perforations can happen
  39. During both mandibular protrusion and retraction, the rotation of articulating surface of the mandible against the disc in lower synovial cavity is prevented by the?
    muscles of mastication
  40. List in order most anterior structure to most posterior structure in TMJ?
    articular eminance, articular fossa, postglenoid process
  41. At what position does a displaced disc of TMJ usually lie?
    anterior to usual position
  42. The joint capsule of the TMJ wraps around which structure?
    mandibular condyle
  43. What happens during subluxation of TMJ?
    • head of condyle moves too far anteriorly on the articular eminance
    • usually caused by opening too wide causing maxillary depression and protrusion of the mandible
    • dislocation of both joints of TMJ
    • must relax muscle & guide head of condyle over articular eminance & back n2 glenoid process
  44. 3 landmarks located on the TMJ?
    • articular eminance
    • articular/mandibular/glenoid fossa
    • postglenoid process(located posterior to articular fossa)
  45. Nerve that innervates TMJ?
    trigeminal nerve
  46. Posterior superior alveolar artery and its branches supply the?
    maxillary posterior teeth and periodontium
  47. The pterygoid plexus drains the?
    maxillary & mandibular dental tissue
  48. What vein results from the mergimg of the superficial temporal and maxillary vein?
    retromandibular
  49. What artery arises from the inferior alveolar artery before the artery enters the mandibular canal?
    mylohyoid artery
  50. Middle meningeal artery's transmitting foramen pair match? (which foramen)
    foramen spinosum(idk if these will be on there I just put all the chapter questions!!)
  51. Which arteries supply the mucous membranes and glands of the hard and soft palates?
    greater & lesser palatine arteries
  52. Vascular lesion that is result when a clot on the inner blood vessel wall becomes dislodged & travels in the vessel?
    embolus
  53. Which artery enters the pterygopalatine fossa & forms terminal branches?
    maxillary artery
  54. Blood filled space between two layers of tissue within the vascular system is?
    venous sinus
  55. 5 facial artery branches & what they supply?
    • ascending palatine artery-supplies soft palate, palatine muscles, palatine tonsils
    • submental artery-supplies submandibular gland, submandibular lymphnodes, mylohyoid muscle and digastric muscle
    • inferior and superior labial arteries-supply upper and lower lips
    • angular artery-(terminal branch of facial artery)supplies side of nose & medial canthus
  56. What are smaller vessels that branch off an arteriole to supply blood directly to tissue?
    capillary
  57. The carotid pulse can be palpated by emergency personnel at the level of the?
    thyroid cartilage
  58. The tongue is supplied mainly by a branch of from the?
    external carotid artery
  59. Artery that is sometimes visible under the skin of the temporal region on a patient?
    superficial temporal
  60. What artery anastomoses with the anterior superior alveolar artery?
    posterior superior alveolar artery
  61. Vascular lesion that is a result of a small amount of blood escaping into the surrounding tissue and clotting?
    hematoma
  62. For the left side of the body, the common carotid & subclavian arteries arise directly from the?
    aorta
  63. What is the larger terminal branch of the external carotid artery?
    • maxillary artery
    • (the other terminal branch of external carotid artery is superficial temporal artey)
  64. The brachiocephalic veins unite to form the?
    superior vena cava
  65. Structure contained within the carotid sheath?
    internal jugular vein
  66. Within the vascular system a large network of blood vessels is called a?
    plexus
  67. Travels to the heart and carries blood?
    vein
  68. In most cases what drains the capillaries of a tissue within vascular system?
    venule
  69. What is mostly absent in the vascular system of head and neck area that is unlike the rest of the body?
    valves in the veins
  70. What can cause narrowing & blockage of the arteries leading to pathologic changes?
    fatty plaque
  71. When a blood vessel is seriously damaged large amounts of blood can leak into surrounding tissues without clotting causing a?
    hemorrhage
  72. Which veins are an exceptional example of variability within vascular system?
    lingual veins
  73. Which artey is hidden by the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
    internal carotid artery
  74. Besides common carotid artery, what other major artery supplies the head and neck?
    subclavian artery
  75. Blood vessels communicate with one another by?
    anastomoses
  76. Just before the common carotid artery bifurcates into external and internal carotid artery it exhibits?
    carotid sinus
  77. Specific muscle that becomes enlarged with excessive bruxism?
    masseter
  78. Lateral deviation to one side involve both gliding and rotational movement of?
    Contralateral TMJ
  79. The insertion of  a muscle is considered to be the?
    most movable end
  80. The duct of the parotid gland pierces what muscle as it treks into the oral cavity?
    buccinator
  81. Wrinkling of the skin of the neck is accomplished by the?
    platysma muscle
  82. If the left lateral pterygoid muscle contracted the action would be?
    right lateral excursion
  83. Widening of the mouth would be accomplished by what muscle?
    risorius
  84. A straight protrusion of the mandible would be accomplished by the?
    right and left pterygoid muscles
  85. 2 muscles that make up mandibular sling?
    • masseter
    • medial pterygoid
  86. 5 branches of the facial nerve traverse thru which major salivary gland?
    parotid
  87. The masseter muscle inserts where?
    into the angle of the mandible
  88. If the horizontal fibers of the temporalis muscle contract the action would be?
    retrusion of the mandible
  89. Buccinator and Platysma muscles are innervated by?
    facial nerve
  90. Sternocleidomastoid and Trapezius muscles are innervated by?
    Cranial nerve XI-(Spinal)Accessory nerve
  91. Medial pterygoid muscle is innervated by?
    mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
  92. The hard palate is supplied with blood from which arteries?
    • greater palatine
    • nasopalatine
  93. The mandibular teeth are supplied with blood from the?
    inferior alveolar artery
  94. The basilar artery is formed by the anastomoses of the?
    vertebral arteries
  95. The maxillary molars are supplied with blood from the?
    posterior superior alveolar artery
  96. Which of the TMJ ligaments attaches to the lingula on the mandible?
    stylomandibular ligament
  97. The digastric muscle recieves nerve innervation from which nerves?
    facial
  98. What muscle plays a role in closing off communication between the nasopharynx & oropharynx?
    pharyngeal constrictor muscles
  99. The Circle of Willis insures blood supply to the?
    tongue
  100. 2 cervical muscles?
    • sternocleidomastoid
    • trapezius
  101. 2 actions of the muscles of the uvula?
    • play a role in swallowing
    • closing off communication to the nasopharnx during swallowing
  102. 2 bones that articulate in the TMJ?
    • temporal bone(specifically mandibular or glenoid fossa of temp. bone)
    • mandible(head of condyle of mandible)
  103. What nerve innervates and what artery supplies TMJ?
    • innervated by: nerve V(trigeminal)
    • supplied by: external carotid artery
  104. Muscles of the pharynx?
    • Stylopharngeus-origin:styloid process,insert:lateral & posterior wall of pharynx,action:raises pharynx,innervated:cranial nerve IX(glossopharyngeal)
    • Constrictor muscles-superior group-origin:pterygoid hamulus,mandible,pterygomandibular raphe.middle group-origin:hyoid bone & stlohyoid ligament.inferior group-origin:thyroid cartilage & cricoid cartilage of larynx.insert:all overlap/insert into median pharyngeal raphe.action:raises pharynx & drives food inferiorly toward esophagus.innervated:pharyngeal plexus, from cranial nerve X(Vagus)
  105. What are infrahyoid muscles(3) & their basic actions(2)?
    • sternothyroid
    • sternohyoid
    • omohyoid
    • named for where they originate&insert
    • innervated by cranial nerves
    • 2 basic actions:stabalize & depress hyoid bone
  106. Suprahyoid Muscles(4)?
    • Digastric(anterior & posterior bellies)
    • Mylohyoid
    • Stylohyoid
    • Geniohyoid
  107. Digastric muscle of suprahyoid (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:posterior belly-mastoid notch(anterior to mastoid process).anterior belly-intermediate tendon of hyoid bone
    • insert:posterior belly-into intermediate tendon. anterior belly-symphisis(where right&left portions of mandible fused together) of mandible
    • action:(dual)when mandible is stationary-raising hyoid bone/when hyoid bone is stationary-depressing mandible
    • nerve innervation:(dual)posterior belly-digastric nerve from VII(facial) anterior belly-branch off of mylohyoid nerve which branches from V3 
  108. Mylohyoid muscle of suprahyoid (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:right&left myohyoid line on medial aspect of mandible
    • insert:right&left fibers fuse together & form floor of mouth, also inserts n2 body of hyoid bone
    • action:elevation of hyoid bone, elevation of tongue, depression of mandible
    • nerve innervation:nerve to thr myloyoid from V3
  109. Stylohyoid muscle of suprahyoid (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:styloid process of temporal bone
    • insert:body of hyoid bone
    • action:raises hyoid bone during swallowing
    • nerve innervation:stylohyoid nerve branch from VII
  110. Geniohyoid muscle of suprahyoid (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:genial tubercles of anterior medial aspect of mandible
    • insert:body of hyoid bone
    • action:raises hyoid bone,depresses mandible
    • nerve innervation:C1 (first cervical nerve)
  111. Masseter (o/i/a)?
    • origin:(2 heads) superficial head- anterior 2/3 of lower border of zygomatic arch. deep head- posterior 1/3 & entire medial surface of zygomatic arch
    • insert:superficial head-lateral surface of angle of mandible deep head-lateral surface of ramus superior to angle of mandible
    • action:elevation of mandible, closing mouth
  112. Temporalis (o/i/a)?
    • origin:temporal fossa;superiorly boundary @ the inferior temporal line & infratemporal crest of the sphenoid bone
    • insert:coronoid process of the mandible
    • action:if entire muscle contracts-elevation of mandible/closing of mouth. if only posterior fibers contract-retrusion of the mandible
  113. Medial Ptreygoid (o/i/a)?
    • origin:medial side of lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone
    • insert:medial side of mandible @ the angle
    • action:elevation of mandible;closing the mouth
  114. Lateral Pterygoid (o/i/a)?
    • origin:(2 heads) superior head-inferior surface of the greater wing of sphenoid bone inferior head-lateral side of lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone
    • insert:anterior aspect of the head of the condyle @ the pterygoid fovea
    • action:one side contracts-lateral excursion of opposite side; both muscles contract @ same time-(straight) protrusion
  115. Epicranial
    • muscle of facial expression (VII)
    • raises eyebrows
    • wiggles hair
  116. Orbicularis oculi
    • muscle of facial expression (VII)
    • closes eyelid;squinting
  117. Corrugator supercilii
    • muscle of facial expression(VII)
    • draws eyebrow medially & inferiorly
  118. Orbicularis oris
    • muscle of facial expression (VII)
    • 4 actions-pursing lips, tightening(thinning) of lips, rolling lips inward to teeth, thrusting lips outward(kissing/pouting)
  119. Buccinator
    • muscle of facial expression (VII)
    • pulls angle of mouth laterally & shortens cheek
    • pushes food back onto teeth for chewing
    • expels air thru lips(imp. 4 playing instrument)
  120. Risorius
    • muscle of facial expression (VII)
    • stretches lips laterally
    • widens opening of oral cavity
    • grimace
  121. Levator labii superioris
    • muscle of facial expression (VII)
    • elevates upper lip
  122. Levator labii superioris alagque nasi
    • muscle of facial expression (VII)
    • elevates upper lip & dilates nostrils
  123. Zygomaticus major
    • facial expression (VII)
    • elevates upper lip in smile
  124. Zygomaticus minor
    • facial expression (VII)
    • assists in elevating upper lip & smiling
  125. Levator anguli oris
    • facial expression (VII)
    • assists in smiling
  126. Depressor anguli oris
    • Facial expression (VII)
    • frowning
  127. Depressor labii inferioris
    • facial expression (VII)
    • depresses lower lip; express irony
  128. Mentalis
    • facial expression(VII)
    • raises chin/protrudes lower lip/narrows vestibule/can displace dentures/express doubt/associated with thinking & concentration
  129. Platysma
    • facial expression (VII)
    • wrinkles skin of neck/pulls corners of mouth down-grimace
  130. Nasalis
    • facial expression (VII)
    • compresses nostrils
  131. Sternocleidomastoid muscle (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:sternum, clavicle
    • insert:mastoid process
    • action:rotation of the head to right or left, if both(L&R) contract head flexes @ neck & extend @ the junction between the head & neck
    • nerve innervation:cranial XI (spinal)accessory nerve
  132. Trapezius (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:occipital bone & posterior midline
    • insert:clavicle & scapula
    • action:shrug shoulders
    • nerve innervation:cranial XI (spinal) accessory nerve
  133. Muscles of soft palate(4)?
    • palatoglossus
    • palatopharyngeus
    • levator veli palatini
    • tensor veli palatine
  134. Palatoglossus (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:median palatine raphe
    • insert:lateral surface of tongue
    • action:elevates tongue/depress soft palate/closes communication of oral cavity from oropharynx
    • nerve innervation:pharyngeal plexus from X (vagus)
    • *muscle of palatoglossal fold(anterior faucial pillar)*
  135. Palatopharyngeus (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:soft palate
    • insert:walls of laryngopharynx & thyroid cartilage
    • action:moves soft palate post. & inf./moves pharynx sup. & ant. to close of communication with nasopharynx during swallowing
    • nerve innervation:pharyngeal plexus from X (vagus)
    • *muscle of palatopharyngeal fold(posterior faucial pillar)
  136. Levator veli palatini (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:temporal bone(inferior surface)
    • insert:median palatine raphe
    • action:elevates soft palate closing communication with nasopharynx during speech &b swallowing
    • nerve innervation:pharyngeal pluxus from X (vagus)
  137. Tensor veli palatini (o/i/a/ni)?
    • origin:auditory tube & sphenoid bone
    • insert:passes between medial pterygoid muscle and plate, forming tendon that wraps around the pterygoid hamulus forming a pulley that tenses/flattens soft palate insert n2 median palatine raphe
    • action:tenses & lowers soft palate; also allows air flow from between pharynx & middle ear cavity
    • nerve innervation:from V3,mandibular division of V(trigeminal)
  138. What is TMJ capsule; where does it attach on mandible & temporal bone?
    fibrous tissue attches on the articular eminance, postglenoid process, and completely surrounds joint. attches to the neck of the condyle on mandible
  139. Explain blood flow thru heart>lungs>aortic arch
    • Deoxygenated blood returns to heart n2 right atrium
    • from right atrium to right ventricle
    • blood flows to lungs via pulmonary artery
    • lungs oxygenate blood
    • leaves lungs via pulmonary vein to left atrium
    • from left atrium to left ventricle out thru aorta
    • aorta bends & turns backward (bend=aortic arch)
  140. Differences for R and L sides for blood supply to the head and neck?
    • R side:brachiocephalic artery comes off aortic arch>branches n2 R common carotid artery & R subclavian artery(R vertebral artery comes off R subclavian artery)
    • L side:L common carotid artery & L subclavian come directly off aortic arch(L vertebral artery comes off L subclavian like R side)
  141. 4 blood vessels that supply brain and how they enter?
    • *common carotid artery branches n2 internal & external carotid arteries*
    • Brain supplied with blood from: R & L internal carotid arteries(enter thru carotid canal) and R & L vertebral arteries(enetr thru foramen magnum)
  142. Explain flow of blood in brain and circle of willis?
    • 2 veretbral arteries join to form basilar artery
    • 2 posterior communicating arteries connect to 2 internal carotid arteries
    • 2 anterior communicating arteries connect to 2 internal carotid arteries
    • *these altogether form Circle of willis which-ensure blood to brain should any of 4 major arteries get blocked
  143. External carotid artery: anterior branches(3), medial branch(1), posterior branches(2), terminal branches(2)?
    • anterior branches:superior thyroid, facial, lingual
    • medial branch:ascending pharyngeal artery
    • posterior:posterior auricular, occipital
    • terminal branches:maxillary(dental), superficial temporal
  144. What do the superior thyroid and lingual arteries supply?
    • superior thyroid-thyroid gland, sternocleidomastoid, larynx, & infrahyoid muscles
    • lingual-tongue, suprahyoid muscles, floor of mouth
  145. Branches of facial artery(including terminal branch) & what they supply?
    • ascending palatine artery> soft palate, palatine muscles & tonsils
    • submental artery> submandibular gland & lymphnodes, mylohyoid and digastric muscles
    • inferior & superior labial arteries>lower & upper lips
    • angular artery(terminal branch)>side of nose & medial canthus
  146. What does ascending pharyngeal artery supply?
    pharyngeal walls, anastomoses with the ascending palatine artery to help supply soft palate
  147. What are the 2 posterior external carotid artery branches & what areas do they supply?
    • posterior aurical artey>internal ear & mastoid air cells (in mastoid process)
    • occipital artery>sternocleidomastoid muscle & back of head
  148. What are branches of superficial temporal artery & what do they supply?
    • transverse facial>parotid gland
    • middle temporal artery>temporalis muscle
    • frontal & parietal branches>scalp in those areas
  149. What forms the common facial vein and where does it drain?
    • facial vein and retromandibular vein join to form common facial vein
    • empties n2 internal jugular vein
  150. List 2 conglomerations of veins in head & their clinical significance?
    • cavernous venous sinus & pterygoid venous plexus
    • spread of infection(infection in h&n can spread 2 cav.ven.plexus-brain infection is difficult 2 treat can b fatal)
    • local anesthesia(injection directly n2 cav.ven sinus can lead to coma or brain damage)
  151. Cavernous venous plexus
    • important conglomeration of vein in head & neck
    • located on both sides of body of sphenoid bone n brain
    • connecting veins connect R & L cavernous venous sinuses
    • sinus also connects with opthamolic veins & pterygoid venous plexus
  152. Pterygoid venous plexus
    • important conglomeration of vein in head & neck
    • recieves blood from:facial vein, posterior superior alveolar vein(drains all maxillary teeth)
    • connects with cavernous venous sinus
    • maxillary vein comes off plexus recieving blood from inferior alveolar vein(drains mandibular teeth)
  153. Large veins that get blood back to heart?
    • subclavian vein & internal jugular vein join to form brachiocephalic vein
    • R & L brachiocephalic vein join to form superior vena cava
    • superior vena cava empties n2 R atrium
  154. Explain blood drainage of the face?
    drainage from the face follows facial vein, picking up blood from superior & inferior labial veins, & submental vein
  155. What is the terminal branch of the maxillary artery and what does it supply?
    • sphenopalatine artery>supplies nasal cavity
    • *nasopalatine artery branches off sphenopalatine artery, goes thru nasopalatine(incisive)foramen>supplies blood to hard palate, incisors, & canine area
  156. Explain drainage of blood in the brain?
    • brain blood drains via sinuses
    • superior&inferior sagittal sinus(& others) drain to confluence of sinuses(located @ occipital protuberance)
    • >from conf.of sinuses blood drians horizontally n2 transverse sinus>n2 sigmoid sinus>exits brain thru jugular foramen as internal jugular vein
  157. Explain blood drainage from side of head?
    • superficial temporal vein drains parietal & temporal areas. superficial temporal vein & maxillary vein join to form retromandibular vein.
    • retromandibular vein recieves blood from posterior auricular vein
    • occipital vein drains back of head. connecting vein from retromandibular vein joins with occipital vein to form external jugular vein
    • external jugular vein recieves blood from anterior jugular vein & empties n2 subclavian vein
  158. Maxillary artery(dental artery) within temporal fossa
    • middle meningeal artery>enters foramen spinosum-supplies menings of brain
    • inferior alveolar artery>enters mandibular foramen-supplies lower teeth(mental artery>branches off @ mental foramen-supply chin;b4 inf. alveolar enters mand. foramen, mylohyoid artery>branches off-supplies floor of mouth & mylohyoid muscles)
    • deep temporal artery>temporalis muscle
    • pterygoid artery>pterygoid muscles
    • masseteric aretry>masseter muscle
    • buccal artery>buccinator & soft tissue of cheek
  159. Just before maxillary artery enters pterygopalatine fossa..
    • b4 max.artery enters pterygopalatine fossa--posterior superior alveolar branhes off>enters the posterior alveolar foramen on maxillary tuberosity-supplies posterior teeth(molars),facial gingiva,& max. sinus(sinus of Highmore)
    • it anastomoses with middle superior alveolar artery
  160. Maxillary sinus enters pterygopalatine fossa:
    • Infraorbital artery>treks along floor of orbit>enters @ infraorbital canal>(in canal)sends off:middle superior alveolar artery-supply premolars>sends off anterior superior alveolar artery-supply incisors/canines.exits from infraorbital foramen-supply tissue under eyes
    • Descending palatine artery>branches n2>greater palatine artery-supply hard palate in molar/premolar area & lesser palatine artery-supply soft palate
    • *fyi terminal branch next- sphenopaletine>nasoplalatine

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