Chap. 2 Berman

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Chap. 2 Berman
2012-09-30 16:16:15

Evidence Based Practice and Research in NSG
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  1. Evidence based practice/nursing
    Clinical decision making based on the simultaneous use of the best evidence, clinical expertise, and clients' values
  2. Nursing care should consider FAME
    Feasibility, appropriateness, meaningfulness, and effectiveness
  3. 6 steps for changing a practice as result of evidence:
    -assess the need for a change in practice
    -locate the best evidence
    -critically analyze the evidence
    -design practic ehcange
    -implement and evaluate the change
    -integrate and maintain change in practice
  4. ANA lobbyed intensely in 1985 and congress passed bill creaating National Center for NSG research as part of the national institues of health; elevated in 1993 to institute status and became National Institue of NSG research
  5. Quantative research- entails the systematic collection, statistical analysis, and interpretation of numerical data; pays attention to extraneous variables that are other than specific variables being studied; also is linked to philisophical perspective of logical positivism- "truth" is absolute and can be discovered by careful measurement...phenomena are best understood by examining their component parts which is referred to as reductionistic perspective
  6. Qualitative research is the systematic collection and thematic analysis of narrative data; rooted in philisophical perspective of naturalism/constructivisim, which maintains that reality is relative or contextual and constructed by individuals who are experiencing a phenomenon; nurse researchers use one of three qualitative traditions: phenomenology- focuses on lived experiences; ethnography- focuses on cultural patters of thoughts and behaviors; grounded theory- focuses on social processes
  7. Dependent variable
    behavior, characteristic, or outcome that the researcher wishes to explain or predict
  8. Independent variable
    presumed cause of or influence on the dependent variable
  9. Methodology
    logistics or mechanics of research; contains how study is organized, who/what will be sources of info., data collection details- what data collected, how collected, timing of data collection
  10. Research design
    overall structure or blueprint or general layout of study; indicates how many times data will be collected, timing of data collection relative to other study events, types of relationships between variables, # of groups being compared in study, and how extraneous variables will be controlled
  11. Descriptive statistics are procedures that organize and summarize large volumes of data including measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and measures of variability (std. dev., range)
  12. Inferential stats allows researchers to test hypotheses about relationships between variables or differences between groups; ex. independent t-test (compares means of two independent groups; dependent t-tests (used to compare the mean performance of 2 dependent or related groups); analysis of variance (ANOVA- used to compare the mean performance of 3 or more groups); pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient or pearson's r- used to describe adn test the relationship between two continuous variables such as age and weight; chi squared- used to compare the distribution of a cond. across two or more groups
  13. Content analysis- used in qualitative research to search for themes/patterns in narrative materials
  14. Strategy for identifying key terms of research is PICO
    • P- patient, population, or problem of interest
    • I- intervention or therapy to consider for the subject of interest
    • C- comparison of interventions, such as not tx
    • O- outcome fo the intervention
  15. CINAHL
    cumulative index of nsg and allied health literature
  16. Tuskegee study
    40 year study in mid 1900s in which black men went untreated for syphilis so disease progression could be studied
  17. 1992 Kennedy Krieger Institue study
    Young children werre knowingly exposed to lead in their homes
  18. IRB (Institutional Review Board)- committee that ensures that all research clients are informed of and understand the consequences of consenting to serve as research participants