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- most highly evolved protozoans
- asexual fission
- sexual conjugation
- sporozoans, non motile
- obligate intracelluar parasites
Virus size range
10 - 400 nm
Virus is Latin for?
Virus protein coat surrounds nucleic acid core
Virus capsid can be surrounded by envelope made of lipid, carbs, and protein
typically a tiny piece of host cell membrane
Viral classification based on (3)
- type of host cell infected (plant, animal, bacteria)
- type of nucleic acid
- mode of infection
viruses that infect bacteria
a fully developed (assembled) viral particle - capable of infection
naked rna - many of these are plant pathogens
- infections proteins (no nucleic acid) cause disease
- implicated in diseases like Alzheimer's and some arthritis forms
- causes Mad Cow Disease and other SLOW VIRAL INFECTIONS
- naked virus
- enveloped virus
- complex virus
- one or more protein coats - CAPSIDS surround nucleic acid core
- capsids made of smaller units - CAPSOMERES
- capsid surrounded by envelop
- envelop made of host cell's plasa membrance
- may have SPIKES (made of carb/protein complexes)
- spikes characteristic of specific virus, helpful to ID virus
- bacteriophages or "phages"
- capsid, tail sheath, tail fiber, pins
Reproduction of bacteriophages
- T-even bacteriophages infect different strains of E. coli
- 1- adsorption
- 2- penetration
- 3 - biosynthesis of vial components
- 4 - maturation and assembly
- 5 - release
Phylum Sarcodina examples (1)
entamoeba histolytica, simple direct life cycle
Phylum mastigophora examples (4)
- Giardia lamblia
- Trichomonas vaginalis
- Trypanosoma gambiense/ Trypanosoma rhodiense
- Trypanosoma cruzi
Phylum Ciliata examples (1)
Phylum Sporozoa examples (2)
- Plasmodium spp.
- Toxoplasma gondii
Protozoan Treatments by Phylum
- Phylum Sarcodina - Flagyl (metronidazole)
- Phylum Mastigophora - Flagyl (metronidazole) EXCEPT trypanosomes = Melarsprol
- Phylum Ciliata - Flagyl (metronidazole)
- Phylum Sporozoa - Toxoplasma for SIC = pyrimethamine/ trisulfapyrimidine
- *protolytic enzymes digest host tissue
- 1. dysentery
- 2. secondary infection w/ normal flora, usually accompained by fever
- 3. hepatomegaly
Life Cyle Stages
trophozoite and cyst
Protozoan from drinking untreated mountain waters
- Giardia lamblia
- phylum mastigophora
factors to transmission for drinking untreated mountain waters (5)
- many animal resevoirs (hosts)
- can infect many animal species
- mostly asymptomatic
- most common: animal feces in water (cysts)
- less common: well water infected w/ cysts
protozoan? cyst ingested, troph released in gi tract, disk attaches to intestinal lining
symptom of giardia lambia (1)
- very severe, orange/grayish, intermittent, high fat content, abundant, profuse, malodorous
why is diarrhea from giardia lamblia hard to diagnose? (2)
- feces comtain low number of troph and cysts (because it holds on to gi tract tightly)
the high fat content of diarrhea due to giardia lamblia is due to what?
giardia malabsorption syndrome: difficulty absorbing certain nutrients due to damaging intestine lining due to sucking disk. so nutrients difficult to absorb include especially lipids
Trichomonas vaginalis causes what? (1)
life cycles of trichomonas vaginalis?
- ONE: trophozoite ONLY
- no cyst stage, transmitted direct contact, usually sexually
symptoms of trichomonas vaginalis
- women: vaginal discharge, painly itichy red spots on vaginal mucosa
- men: penis discharge, penis tissue w/ painly itch red spots
geography of trichomonas vaginalis
time frame for trichomonas vaginalis symptoms
men and women
- women: up to 80% affected women - asymptomatic for significant period of time (wks, months, +)
- men: usually show symptoms within days or weeks
treatment for trichomonas vaginalis
- same as entamoeba histolytica
- blood tissue flagellates (leaf shaped)
- efficient for moving through circulatory system
trypanosomes are vectored to humans by?
blood sucking arthropods (insects)
pleomorphic and several life cycle stages
trypansoma gambiense and typansoma rhodiense cause what disease?
african sleeping sickness
trypansoma gambiense and typansoma rhodiense vectored by what?
tse tse fly
african sleeping sickeness symptoms
- initially: severe headache, increased apathy
- over period of months: convulsions, sleeping more
- w/o tx: death within 2 - 3 years
african sleeping sickness treatment?
from trypansoma gambiense/rhodiense
this virus tends to be reactivated by FEVER or SUNBURN
Herpes simplex type 1
herpes simplex type 2 (genital herpes) incubation period
Reactivated by physical/emotional stress and remains latent in nerve cells forever. Still infectious in latent phase
herpes simplex type 2
family? varicella/zoster virus
herpesviridae family (dna virus)
incubation time for chicken pox
how is chicken pox acquired?
through respiratory system
symptoms of chicken pox?
- fluid filled blisters
- usually accompanied by fever
age risk for reyes syndrome
age risk: 15-25
reyes syndrome, what increases the chances?
aspirin and similar drugs
what is reyes syndrome?
rare complication of many viral infections, seems to be improving but suddenly condition worsens
progression of reyes syndrome, symptoms?
vomiting, sugns of brain dysfunction, can be followed by coma and death
epstien barr virus (EBV) causes what disease?
- infectous mononucleosis (kissing disease (saliva exchange))
- Burkitts lymphoma
epstein barr virus family?
family papovaviridae, protein morph?
ds circular DNA
family papovaviridae examples? (2)
- 1. papilloma (warts, cervical cancer)
- 2. polyoma and simian viruses (cancers in animals, primarily tumors)
polyoma and simian viruses, family?
papovavirdae (ds circular dna)
family adenoviridae, protein morph?
DS (linear?) DNA
family adenoviridae causes what?
- serious respiratory infections
- have spikes assisting in transmission
family poxviridae, protein morph?
DS linear DNA
family poxviridae, causes?
large complex viruses - cow pox, small pox
RNA viruses, families? (5)
- 1. Picornaviridae
- 2. Paramyxoviruses
- 3. Togaviridae
- 4. Rhabdoviridae
- 5. Retroviridae
Family picornaviridae, virus examples? 2
- 1. polio viruses
- 2. rhino viruses
Rhino viruses causes?
3 reasons common colds are so common?
- 1. diversity of strains
- 2. lack of durable immunity
- 3. no drugs to cure
family paramyxoviruses, protein morph?
ss linear dna
Family paramyxoviruses, examples (3)
- 1. parainfluenza
- 2. measles
- 3. mumps
Rubeola is a type of what/
how is rubeola spread?
high contageous, spread by respiratory secretions
reservoir for rubeola?
uprise of rubeola cases due to? (2)
- 1. vaccine only 95% effective
- 2. not everyone vaccinated
rubeola incubation period?
symptoms of rubeola?
- cold like symptoms
- rashes in mouth (KOPLIK Spots)
encephalitis in 1/2000 cases (can cause permanent brain damage) --> 1/3000 cases fatal (usually infants) = what disease?
mumps affect which body part? symptoms?
salivary gland, painfully swollen & fever
mumps incubation period?
disease that can lead to permanent sterility?
- -if older males, 4-7 days after symptom onset and testes inflammed
Rubella, which family?
Family Togaviridae (RNA)
"german measles" - milder than rubeola, can go unnoticed
transmission of rubella?
inhaled respiratory route
rubella incubation period?
2-3 weeks (longer than rubeola)
rash and fever
complications rare, encephalitis in 1/6000 cases. disease?
congential rubella syndrome can happen when?
women (no previous exposure) infected during pregnancy
congential rubella syndrome effects on fetus?
- heart defects
- mental retardation
family rhabdoviridae, protein morph?
family rhabdovirdiae, virus shape?
bullet shaped virus w/ envelope and spikes
any infect any species of animals
RABIES, family rhabdovirdiae
3 reasons why rabies is rare in the US
- 1. usa good about pet vaccinations
- 2. programs to vaccinate wild animals
- 3. program P.E.T = post exposure treatment , window of opp before virus gains foothold
rabies - acquired how?
bite of infected animal, virus in salvia
rabies incubation period?
- 30-50 days avg
- as long as six years
- depends on bite location, shorter in nerve rich areas
rabies, how does it work?
virus travels along periperal nevers until reach CNS and cause ENCEPHALITIS
- agitation periods followed by calm periods
- painful throat spasms w/ cold air inhale or drink water
- DEATH (always) wih nerve/brain damage
rabies 2 forms of disease
- 1. furious rabies
- 2. paralytic rabies = minimal excitability
Family retrovirdiae, protein morph
Family retrovirdiae, includes? (3)
- ALL rna tumor viruses
- viral hepatitis