Microbio 102 Exam 3

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jujeebe
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Microbio 102 Exam 3
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2012-10-16 05:00:47
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102 protozoans
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Exam 3 protozoans and viruses
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  1. Phylum Sarcodina
    amoebas
  2. Phylum Mastigophora
    flagellates
  3. Phylum Ciliata
    • Cilia
    • most highly evolved protozoans
    • asexual fission
    • sexual conjugation
  4. Phylum Sporozoa
    • sporozoans, non motile
    • obligate intracelluar parasites
  5. Virus size range
    10 - 400 nm
  6. Virus is Latin for?
    Poison
  7. Capsid
    Virus protein coat surrounds nucleic acid core
  8. Envelope
    Virus capsid can be surrounded by envelope made of lipid, carbs, and protein

    typically a tiny piece of host cell membrane
  9. Viral classification based on (3)
    • type of host cell infected (plant, animal, bacteria)
    • type of nucleic acid
    • mode of infection
  10. viruses that infect bacteria
    bacteriophages
  11. Virion
    a fully developed (assembled) viral particle - capable of infection 
  12. viroid
    naked rna - many of these are plant pathogens
  13. Prions
    • infections proteins (no nucleic acid) cause disease
    • implicated in diseases like Alzheimer's and some arthritis forms
    • causes Mad Cow Disease and other SLOW VIRAL INFECTIONS
  14. Viral Morphology
    • naked virus
    • enveloped virus
    • complex virus
  15. Naked virus
    • one or more protein coats - CAPSIDS surround nucleic acid core
    • capsids made of smaller units - CAPSOMERES
  16. Enveloped Virus
    • capsid surrounded by envelop
    • envelop made of host cell's plasa membrance
    • may have SPIKES (made of carb/protein complexes)
    • spikes characteristic of specific virus, helpful to ID virus
  17. Complex Virus
    • bacteriophages or "phages"
    • capsid, tail sheath, tail fiber, pins
  18. Reproduction of bacteriophages
    • T-even bacteriophages infect different strains of E. coli
    • 1- adsorption
    • 2- penetration
    • 3 - biosynthesis of vial components
    • 4 - maturation and assembly
    • 5 - release
  19. Phylum Sarcodina examples (1)
    entamoeba histolytica, simple direct life cycle
  20. Phylum mastigophora examples (4)
    • Giardia lamblia
    • Trichomonas vaginalis
    • Trypanosoma gambiense/ Trypanosoma rhodiense
    • Trypanosoma cruzi
  21. Phylum Ciliata examples (1)
    Balantidium coli
  22. Phylum Sporozoa examples (2)
    • Plasmodium spp. 
    • Toxoplasma gondii
  23. Protozoan Treatments by Phylum
    • Phylum Sarcodina - Flagyl (metronidazole)
    • Phylum Mastigophora - Flagyl (metronidazole) EXCEPT trypanosomes = Melarsprol
    • Phylum Ciliata - Flagyl (metronidazole)
    • Phylum Sporozoa - Toxoplasma for SIC = pyrimethamine/ trisulfapyrimidine
  24. Entamoeba histolytica 
    Symptoms
    • *protolytic enzymes digest host tissue
    • 1. dysentery
    • 2. secondary infection w/ normal flora, usually accompained by fever
    • 3. hepatomegaly
  25. Entamoeba histolytica
    Life Cyle Stages
    trophozoite and cyst
  26. Protozoan from drinking untreated mountain waters
    • Giardia lamblia
    • phylum mastigophora
  27. factors to transmission for drinking untreated mountain waters (5)
    • many animal resevoirs (hosts)
    • can infect many animal species
    • mostly asymptomatic 
    • most common: animal feces in water (cysts)
    • less common: well water infected w/ cysts
  28. protozoan? cyst ingested, troph released in gi tract, disk attaches to intestinal lining
    Giardia lambia
  29. symptom of giardia lambia (1)
    • diarrhea 
    • very severe, orange/grayish, intermittent, high fat content, abundant, profuse, malodorous 
  30. why is diarrhea from giardia lamblia hard to diagnose? (2)
    • feces comtain low number of troph and cysts (because it holds on to gi tract tightly)
    • intermittent 
  31. the high fat content of diarrhea due to giardia lamblia is due to what?
    giardia malabsorption syndrome: difficulty absorbing certain nutrients due to damaging intestine lining due to sucking disk. so nutrients difficult to absorb include especially lipids
  32. Trichomonas vaginalis causes what? (1)
    trichomoniasis (STD)
  33. life cycles of trichomonas vaginalis?
    • ONE: trophozoite ONLY
    • no cyst stage, transmitted direct contact, usually sexually
  34. symptoms of trichomonas vaginalis
    • women: vaginal discharge, painly itichy red spots on vaginal mucosa
    • men: penis discharge, penis tissue w/ painly itch red spots 
  35. geography of trichomonas vaginalis 
    cosmopolitan 
  36. time frame for trichomonas vaginalis symptoms 
    men and women
    • women: up to 80% affected women - asymptomatic for significant period of time (wks, months, +)
    • men: usually show symptoms within days or weeks
  37. treatment for trichomonas vaginalis
    • flagyl 
    • same as entamoeba histolytica 
  38. trypanosomes morphology
    • blood tissue flagellates (leaf shaped) 
    • efficient for moving through circulatory system 
  39. trypanosomes are vectored to humans by?
    blood sucking arthropods (insects)
  40. pleomorphic and several life cycle stages
    trypanosomes
  41. trypansoma gambiense and typansoma rhodiense cause what disease?
    african sleeping sickness
  42. trypansoma gambiense and typansoma rhodiense vectored by what?
    tse tse fly
  43. african sleeping sickeness symptoms
    • initially: severe headache, increased apathy
    • over period of months: convulsions, sleeping more
    • w/o tx: death within 2 - 3 years 
  44. african sleeping sickness treatment?
    from trypansoma gambiense/rhodiense
    melarsprol
  45. this virus tends to be reactivated by FEVER or SUNBURN
    Herpes simplex type 1
  46. herpes simplex type 2 (genital herpes) incubation period
    ~1 week
  47. Reactivated by physical/emotional stress and remains latent in nerve cells forever. Still infectious in latent phase
    herpes simplex type 2
  48. family? varicella/zoster virus
    herpesviridae family (dna virus) 
  49. incubation time for chicken pox
    ~2 weeks
  50. how is chicken pox acquired?
    through respiratory system
  51. symptoms of chicken pox?
    • fluid filled blisters 
    • usually accompanied by fever
  52. age risk for reyes syndrome
    age risk: 15-25
  53. reyes syndrome, what increases the chances?
    aspirin and similar drugs
  54. what is reyes syndrome?
    rare complication of many viral infections, seems to be improving but suddenly condition worsens
  55. progression of reyes syndrome, symptoms?
    vomiting, sugns of brain dysfunction, can be followed by coma and death
  56. epstien barr virus (EBV) causes what disease?
    • infectous mononucleosis (kissing disease (saliva exchange))
    • Burkitts lymphoma
  57. epstein barr virus family?
    herpesviridae (DNA)
  58. family papovaviridae, protein morph?
    ds circular DNA
  59. family papovaviridae examples? (2)
    • 1. papilloma (warts, cervical cancer)
    • 2. polyoma and simian viruses (cancers in animals, primarily tumors)
  60.  polyoma and simian viruses, family?
    papovavirdae (ds circular dna)
  61. family adenoviridae, protein morph?
    DS (linear?) DNA
  62. family adenoviridae causes what?
    • serious respiratory infections 
    • have spikes assisting in transmission
  63. family poxviridae, protein morph?
    DS linear DNA
  64. family poxviridae, causes?
    large complex viruses - cow pox, small pox
  65. RNA viruses, families? (5)
    • 1. Picornaviridae
    • 2. Paramyxoviruses
    • 3. Togaviridae
    • 4. Rhabdoviridae
    • 5. Retroviridae 
  66. Family picornaviridae, virus examples? 2
    • 1. polio viruses
    • 2. rhino viruses 
  67. Rhino viruses causes?
    common cold
  68. 3 reasons common colds are so common?
    • 1. diversity of strains
    • 2. lack of durable immunity
    • 3. no drugs to cure
  69. family paramyxoviruses, protein morph?
    ss linear dna
  70. Family paramyxoviruses, examples (3)
    • 1. parainfluenza
    • 2. measles
    • 3. mumps
  71. Rubeola is a type of what/
    measles
  72. how is rubeola spread?
    high contageous, spread by respiratory secretions
  73. reservoir for rubeola?
    only humans
  74. uprise of rubeola cases due to? (2)
    • 1. vaccine only 95% effective
    • 2. not everyone vaccinated
  75. rubeola incubation period?
    11-14 days
  76. symptoms of rubeola?
    • cold like symptoms
    • rashes in mouth (KOPLIK Spots)
  77. encephalitis in 1/2000 cases (can cause permanent brain damage) --> 1/3000 cases fatal (usually infants) = what disease?
    rubeola
  78. mumps affect which body part? symptoms?
    salivary gland, painfully swollen & fever
  79. mumps incubation period?
    16-18 days
  80. disease that can lead to permanent sterility?
    • mumps
    • -if older males, 4-7 days after symptom onset and testes inflammed
  81. Rubella, which family?
    Family Togaviridae (RNA)
  82. "german measles" - milder than rubeola, can go unnoticed
    rubella
  83. transmission of rubella?
    inhaled respiratory route
  84. rubella incubation period?
    2-3 weeks (longer than rubeola)
  85. rubella symptoms?
    rash and fever
  86. complications rare, encephalitis in 1/6000 cases. disease?
    rubella
  87. congential rubella syndrome can happen when?
    women (no previous exposure) infected during pregnancy
  88. congential rubella syndrome effects on fetus?
    • deafness
    • cataracts
    • heart defects
    • mental retardation
  89. family rhabdoviridae, protein morph?
    DS RNA
  90. family rhabdovirdiae, virus shape?
    bullet shaped virus w/ envelope and spikes
  91. any infect any species of animals
    RABIES, family rhabdovirdiae
  92. 3 reasons why rabies is rare in the US
    • 1. usa good about pet vaccinations
    • 2. programs to vaccinate wild animals
    • 3. program P.E.T = post exposure treatment , window of opp before virus gains foothold
  93. rabies - acquired how?
    bite of infected animal, virus in salvia
  94. rabies incubation period?
    • 30-50 days avg
    • as long as six years
    • depends on bite location, shorter in nerve rich areas
  95. rabies, how does it work?
    virus travels along periperal nevers until reach CNS and cause ENCEPHALITIS 
  96. rabies symptoms
    • agitation periods followed by calm periods
    • painful throat spasms w/ cold air inhale or drink water
    • DEATH (always) wih nerve/brain damage
  97. rabies 2 forms of disease
    • 1. furious rabies
    • 2. paralytic rabies = minimal excitability
  98. Family retrovirdiae, protein morph
    DS RNA
  99. Family retrovirdiae, includes? (3)
    • ALL rna tumor viruses
    • HIV
    • viral hepatitis 

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