Ecology 2nd test review

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zzto
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Ecology 2nd test review
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2012-09-30 12:51:50
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Ecology 2nd test review
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  1. 1
  2. The spatial arrangement of individuals within a population is called
    dispersion.
  3. The distribution of the saguaro cactus in Arizona is limited primarily by
    extended periods of below freezing temperature
  4. Which of the following statements about Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), which emerged in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, is false?
    The virus responsible for HPS had only been in the area about two years prior to the outbreak.
  5. In the Seychelles warbler, territoriality tends to make its dispersion pattern more _______, and cooperative breeding makes its dispersion pattern more _______.
    regular; clumped
  6. According to the work of Estes and others, an increase in _______ would lead to an increase in the abundance of urchins.
    orcas
  7. The population density of ground crickets in Oldmill farm is about 15 per square meter. Assuming that the crickets are randomly distributed, about how many crickets would you expect in a rectangular section of land that is 6 meters by 2 meters?
    180
  8. Some animals (such as many species of salamanders) and plants (strawberries) form clones of genetically identical, but physiologically independent and distinct, individuals. These independent members of a clone are called
    ramets.
  9. Which of the following is not a biotic feature of the environment that can limit an organism's distribution or abundance?
    Rainfall
  10. The spatial arrangement of individuals within a population is called
    dispersion.
  11. The distribution of the saguaro cactus in Arizona is limited primarily by
    extended periods of below freezing temperature.
  12. Which of the following statements about Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), which emerged in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, is false?
    The virus responsible for HPS had only been in the area about two years prior to the outbreak.
  13. In the Seychelles warbler, territoriality tends to make its dispersion pattern more _______, and cooperative breeding makes its dispersion pattern more _______.
    regular; clumped
  14. Which of the following organisms has a survivorship curve most like that of humans living in the United States?
    Dall mountain sheep
  15. What is true about survivorship and lifetables.
    Survivorship (lx) can increase from one age class to the next.
  16. Which of the following statements about life tables is true?
    Appropriate use of a static life table requires knowing or estimating the age (or size or stage) of the organisms under observation.
  17. Which of the following types of organisms will most likely have a relatively constant rate of survival throughout their lives?
    Song thrushes
  18. Loggerhead sea turtles (large marine turtles that lay eggs in nests under sandy beaches) are currently listed as a threatened species. Which of the following statements about these turtles is true?
    The installation of turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in shrimp nets has reduced the number of sea turtles killed by shrimping.
  19. autotroph   
    An organism that converts energy from sunlight or from inorganic chemical compounds in the environment into chemical energy stored in the carbon–carbon bonds of organic compounds. Compare heterotroph.
  20. C3 photosynthetic pathway   
    A biochemical pathway involving the uptake of CO2 by the enzyme ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) and synthesis of sugars by the Calvin cycle. Compare C4 photosynthetic pathway", crassulacean acid metabolism.
  21. C4 photosynthetic pathway   
    A biochemical pathway involving the daytime uptake of CO2 by the enzyme phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase) in mesophyll cells; the carbon is then transferred as a four-carbon acid to the bundle sheath cells, where CO2 is released to the Calvin cycle for sugar synthesis. Compare C3 photosynthetic pathway, crassulacean acid metabolism.
  22. Calvin cycle
    The biochemical pathway used by photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms to fix carbon and synthesize sugars.
  23. chemosynthesis
    The use of energy from inorganic chemical compounds to fix CO2 and produce carbohydrates using the Calvin Cycle; also called chemolithotrophy.
  24. crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)   
    A photosynthetic pathway in which CO2 is fixed and stored as an organic acid at night, and then released to the Calvin cycle during the day. Compare C3 photosynthetic pathway, C4 photosynthetic pathway.
  25. fixation   
    (1) The uptake of the gaseous form of a compound, including CO2 in photosynthesis and N2 in nitrogen fixation, by organisms for use in metabolic functions. (2) With respect to the genetic composition of a population, an allele frequency of 100%.
  26. heterotroph   
    An organism that obtains energy by consuming energy-rich organic compounds from other organisms. Compare autotroph.
  27. marginal value theorem   
    A conceptual optimal foraging model proposing that an animal should stay in a food patch until the rate of energy gain in that patch has declined to the average rate for the habitat, then depart for another patch.
  28. optimal foraging  
    A theory proposing that animals will maximize their rate of energy gain.
  29. photorespiration   
    A chemical reaction in photosynthetic organisms in which the enzyme rubisco takes up O2, leading to the breakdown of sugars, the release of CO2, and a net loss of energy.
  30. photosynthesis  
    A process that uses sunlight to provide the energy needed to take up CO2 and synthesize sugars.
  31. absolute population size   
    The actual number of individuals in a population. Compare relative population size.
  32. abundance   
    The number of individuals in a species that are found in a given area; abundance is often measured by population size or population density.
  33. clone 
      A genetically identical copy of an individual.
  34. clumped dispersion   
    A dispersion pattern in which individuals are grouped together. Compare random dispersion, regular dispersion.
  35. cooperative breeding   
    A behavioral pattern in which young animals postpone breeding and instead help their parents raise offspring.
  36. dispersal limitation   
    A situation in which a species' limited capacity for dispersal prevents it from reaching areas of suitable habitat.
  37. dispersion   
    The spatial arrangement of individuals within a population.
  38. distribution   
    The geographic area where individuals of a species are present.
  39. disturbance   
    An abiotic event that kills or damages some individuals and thereby creates opportunities for other individuals to grow and reproduce.
  40. ecological niche   
    The physical and biological conditions that a species needs to grow, survive, and reproduce.
  41. genet   
    A genetic individual, resulting from a single fertilization event; in organisms that can reproduce asexually, a genet may consist of multiple, genetically identical parts, each of which has the potential to function as an independent physiological unit
  42. geographic range   
    The entire geographic region over which a species is found.
  43. niche model   
    A predictive tool that models the ecological niche occupied by a species based on the conditions at locations the species is known to occupy.
  44. population density   
    The number of individuals per unit of area.
  45. population size   
    The number of individuals in a population.
  46. population
    A group of individuals of the same species that live within a particular area and interact with one another.
  47. ramet
       An actually or potentially physiologically independent member of a genet that may compete with other members for resources. Compare genet.
  48.  random dispersion   
    A dispersion pattern that is similar to what would occur if individuals were positioned at locations selected at random. Compare clumped dispersion, regular dispersion.
  49. regular dispersion   
    A dispersion pattern in which individuals are relatively evenly spaced throughout their habitat. Compare clumped dispersion, random dispersion.
  50. relative population size   
    An estimate of population size based on data that are related in an unknown way to the absolute population size, but can be compared from one time period or place to another. Compare absolute population size.
  51. age structure   
    The proportions of a population in each age class.
  52. carrying capacity   
    The maximum population size that can be supported indefinitely by the environment, represented by the term K in the logistic equation.
  53. cohort life table   
    A life table in which the fate of a group of individuals born during the same time period (a cohort) is followed from birth to death.
  54. density-dependent   
    Of or referring to a factor that causes birth rates, death rates, or dispersal rates to change as the density of the population changes. Compare density-independent.
  55. density-independent   
    Of or referring to a factor whose effects on birth and death rates are independent of population density. Compare density-dependent.
  56. doubling time (td)   
    The number of years it takes a population to double in size.
  57. ecological footprint   
    The total area of productive ecosystems required to support a population.
  58. exponential growth  
    Change in the size of a population of a species with continuous reproduction by a constant proportion at each instant in time.
  59. exponential population growth rate (r)   
    A constant proportion by which a population of a species with continuous reproduction changes in size at each instant in time; also called the intrinsic rate of increase. Compare geometric population growth rate.
  60. fecundity   
    The average number of offspring produced by a female while she is of age x (denoted Fx in a life table).
  61. geometric growth   
    Change in the size of a population of a species with discrete reproduction by a constant proportion from one discrete time period to the next. Compare exponential growth.
  62. geometric population growth rate
    (λ)
        A constant proportion by which a population of a species with discrete reproduction changes in size from one discrete time period to the next; also called the finite rate of increase. Compare exponential population growth rate.
  63. intrinsic rate of increase   
    See exponential population growth rate.
  64. life table   
    A summary of how survival and reproductive rates in a population vary with the age of individuals; in species for which age is not informative or is difficult to measure, life tables may be based on the size or life history stage of individuals.
  65. logistic growth   
    Change in the size of a population that is rapid at first, then decreases as the population approaches the carrying capacity of its environment.
  66. net reproductive rate (R0)   
    The mean number of offspring produced by an individual in a population during its lifetime.
  67. population regulation  
    A pattern of population growth in which one or more density-dependent factors increase population size when numbers are low and decrease population size when numbers are high.
  68. stable age distribution   
    A population age structure that does not change from one year to the next.
  69. static life table
    A life table that records the survival and reproduction of individuals of different ages during a single time period.
  70. survival rate
        The proportion of individuals of age x that survive to be age x + 1 (denoted Sx in a life table).
  71. survivorship curve   
    A graph based on survivorship data (lx) that plots the number of individuals from a hypothetical cohort (typically, of 1,000 individuals) that will survive to reach different ages.
  72. survivorship   
    The proportion of individuals that survive from birth (age 0) to age x (denoted lx in a life table).
  73. type I survivorship curve   
    A survivorship curve in which newborns, juveniles, and young adults all have high survival rates and death rates do not begin to increase greatly until old age.
  74. type I survivorship curve  
    A survivorship curve in which newborns, juveniles, and young adults all have high survival rates and death rates do not begin to increase greatly until old age.
  75. type III survivorship curve   
    A survivorship curve in which individuals die at very high rates when they are young, but those that reach adulthood survive well later in life.

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