ist 201 final 7-11.txt

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ist 201 final 7-11.txt
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ist 201 final 7-11
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  1. MAC
    technique 2 get packet on & off media
  2. Data Link layer protocols
    Ethernet, PPP, HDLC, & Frame Relay
  3. frame control info
    in header & trailer, communication of nodes details, examples: frame start, addressing, type, quality, EC, frame stop
  4. Data Link layer
    implemented in SW & HW, prepares packet 4 media travel & encodes as signals, framing, physical addys
  5. 2 Data Link sublayers
    LLC & MAC
  6. LLC
    IDs Network Layer protocol (IPv4/IPv6/IPX) used 4 frame
  7. MAC method (Data Link layer protocol) depends on
    media sharing & topology
  8. 2 MAC methods
    controlled & contention
  9. controlled MAC method
    deterministic, take turns, 4 ring topology, Token Ring
  10. contention MAC method
    competitive, CSMA, 4 multiaccess logical topology, Ethernet & Wireless
  11. 2 contention resolution methods
    CSMA/CD & CSMA/CA (CA 4 Wireless)
  12. point-to-point
    MAC 4 nonshared media, only consideration=1/2 or full duplex communication, doesn't require (physical?) addressing
  13. 3 types of logical network topologies
    point-to-point, multiaccess, & ring
  14. virtual circuit
    logical connection between 2 devices within a network
  15. framing
    adding the control info. (which differs by protocol)
  16. CRC
    Cyclic Redundancy Check, logical summary of frame contents 4 EC
  17. Network types & matching protocols
    Ethernet (802.2 & 802.3 4 LANs), PPP (4 WANs), & Wireless (802.11 4 LANs)
  18. PPP
    protocol 4 WANs, mocks point-to-point, uses PPP BC addy
  19. CSMA/CA
    4 Wireless (802.11), sends intention 2 send 1st
  20. MAC addy
    =48 bits
  21. AID
    Wireless protocol frame field, IDs transmission station
  22. Manchester Differential Coding (10BASE-T) & 4B/5B (100BASE-T)
    2 types of bit encoding 2 place the bits on media
  23. Physical Layer
    encodes binary digits into signals, HW-based
  24. media vulnerabilities
    overhead (traffic) & interference (distortions)
  25. encoding
    bits 2 signals, grouping into patterns devices will recognize, has start & end codes in <- all sent in strings
  26. bit time
    time 2 generate 1 bit of data & send out as signal
  27. 3 signal variations
    amplitude (how high/strong), frequency (how often), & phase
  28. 2 signaling methods
    NRZ & Manchester Encoding
  29. NRZ
    signaling method with defined voltages 2 represent 1 & 0
  30. Manchester Encoding
    uses voltage changes from high to low ( 0 ) & low to high ( 1 ) 2 represent 1 & 0
  31. code groups
    small group of bits representing larger groups
  32. 4B/5B
    code group, for bits grouped into 5 bit symbol
  33. bandwidth
    capacity in given amount of time (theory)
  34. throughput
    capacity in given amount of time (practical - actual)
  35. TIA/EIA 568A & 568B
    pairs 2 & 3 switched
  36. fiber cable
    Single-Mode (-----) & Multimode (xXxXx)
  37. dispersion
    separating of light in fiber optic cables
  38. Wireless standards
    802.11 (WiFi), 802.15 (WPAN & Bluetooth), & 802.16 (WiMAX)
  39. 802.11 Standards
    a=5GHz, b=2.4GHz, g=2.4GHz, n=both
  40. OTDR
    Optical Time Domain Reflectometer, 2 test fiber optic cables
  41. delimiters
    indicate start & end of frame
  42. LLC
    802.2, soft, connects HW 2 upper layers
  43. MAC
    controls placement & removal of frames from media
  44. SFD
    Start Frame Delimiter, along with Preamble - synchronizes sending & receiving devices
  45. 802.3ac
    updated Ethernet
  46. VLAN
    technology used in switch networks, reason why 802.3ac came about - needed larger frame size
  47. pad
    2 increase Ethernet frame 2 minimum size, "fill-in"
  48. LAA
    configures device 2 use specific MAC addy, fools
  49. to represent hexadecimal
    subscript/preceded with 0x
  50. ipconfig /all & ifconfig
    2 examine MAC addy
  51. broadcast MAC addy
    FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
  52. host group
    multicast group, 224.0.0.0 - 234.255.255.255 & begins with 01-00-5E
  53. jam signal
    0-1-0-1 repetition (32-bit), after collision transmitting devices that collided continue transmitting 2 alert network devices of issue
  54. backoff algorithm
    devices stop transmitting 4 random time in response 2 collision
  55. 3 network conditions that increase collisions
    more devices, more access, & increased cable distances between devices
  56. Latency
    time 4 signal 2 propogate down cable
  57. Preamble
    transmitting device sending 64 bytes of timing synchronization info.
  58. asynchronous
    with throughput speeds of 10Mbps /< each receiving device uses 8 bytes of timing info 2 synchronize receiving circuit
  59. synchronous
    with 100Mbps /> no timing info - uses signaling methods 2 synchronize transmit & receive clocks
  60. Bit Time
    time required 4 bit 2 be placed & sensed on media, the faster the speed = the less time 2 react 2 collisions
  61. Slot Time
    maximum time 2 detect a collision, time 2 travel between 2 most distant devices * 2
  62. interframe spacing
    time waited after successful transmission, 96 bit times
  63. backoff timing
    additional time waited (over interframe spacing) that collided devices must wait
  64. Ethernet PHY
    physical differences of Ethernet
  65. Ethernet types
    10Mbps - old Ethernet, Manchester Encoding
  66. 100Mpbs - Fast Ethernet, 4B/5B Encoding
  67. 1000Mpbs - Gigabit Ethernet, 2 separate encoding steps
  68. 1000BASE-T Ethernet - 4D-PAM5 Encoding, FEC, & IDLE
  69. 1000BASE-SX & 1000BASE-LX - same as ^ except 8B/10B encoding
  70. 802.3a
    10Gbps Ethernet 4 future
  71. selective forwarding
    logical point-to-point between 2 nodes in switch
  72. store and forward
    frame buffer by switch when port unavailable
  73. MAC table
    switch, MAC addys 2 ports, aka switch table
  74. 5 switch operations
    learning, aging, flooding, selective flooding, & filtering
  75. ARP
    IP addys 2 MAC addys
  76. proxy ARP
    when router fakes being remote destination device
  77. arp
    cmd 2 display/add/remove table entries
  78. ARP spoofing/poisoning
    injecting network with wrong device MAC addy
  79. 4 physical cabling areas
    work area, telecommunications room, horizontal (work 2 telecomm. rm - 90m max.), & vertical (backbone - telecomm. rm 2 equipment rm/LAN2LAN/2 ISP)
  80. patch cables
    work area, < 6ft, 10m max (5+5)
  81. DSU
    Data Service Unit, transmission between backbone cabling & horizontal cabling
  82. patch cords
    mini cables between patch panels & intermediate devices
  83. Fiber Optic cable max
    2500m-a few km
  84. raceway
    pipe/duct 4 cabling
  85. MDI
    Media Dependent Interface, comps/servers/routers
  86. MDIX
    Media Dependent Interface Crossover, hubs & switches
  87. CSU/DSU
    Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit, 4 WANs - HW out of network - from network 2 ISP (?), Winchester connector
  88. DCE
    Data Communication Equipment, provides timing services, WAN access - provider end
  89. DTE
    Data Terminal, receiving timing services, WAN access - customer end, routers are DTE by default
  90. Auxillary interface
    4 remote management of router, modem connected 4 dialup access
  91. Cisco IOS
    several MBs, stored in flash, copied into RAM on startup
  92. CTY line
    console, 2 connect 2 comp. with terminal emulation SW 4 initial configuration & also 4 troubleshooting
  93. VTY
    Virtual Teletype Interface, telnet/SSH 4 remote access CLI session, requires L3 addy on at least 1 interface, network services, & etc.
  94. startup-config
    stored on NVRAM, loaded into RAM at startup = running-config
  95. running-config
    what's in RAM & changes when device configured, used 2 operate network device, lost on restart/off
  96. 4 IOS modes
    user executive (> & known as view-only mode)
  97. privileged executive (# & aka enable mode)
  98. global configuration ( (config)# )
  99. other speciality configuration ( (config-mode)# )
  100. cmd syntax
    keyword argument
  101. 3 cmd errors
    ambiguous (cmd?) , incomplete (cmd ?), & incorrect (^=?)
  102. 2 set console password
    line console 0
  103. password xxxxx
  104. login
  105. 2 set privileged EXEC password
    enable password xxxxx
  106. OR
  107. secret xxxxx
  108. ^is encrypted
  109. 2 set telnet password
    line vty 0 4
  110. password xxxxx
  111. login <--- default set no need 2 type
  112. 2 set encrypted password
    service password-encryption
  113. 2 set banner
    banner motd #msg here#
  114. switch configuration cmd
    interface VLAN1
  115. ping indicators
    ! (receipt), . (timeout), U (unreachable)
  116. tracert
    from Win comp (as opposed 2 traceroute from IOS)
  117. network baseline
    pic of overall network performance
  118. arp -a
    cmd 2 list all devices in ARP cache (IP 2 MAC) , arp -d 2 clear cache
  119. ping sweep
    scanning method 2 collect MAC addys
  120. show mac-address table
    cmd 2 show hosts connected 2 switch
  121. ok
    review other cmds if time

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