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A disturbance in the normal flow and time pattering of speech characterized by:
udible or silent blocking
- -Sound, syllable, or word repetitions
- -Sound prolongations
- -Broken sounds
- -Sound and words produced with excessive tension
Guitar defines stuttering as an abnormal high frequency or duration of stoppages in the forward flow of speech affecting its continuity, rythm, rate, and effortfulness. The individual's reactions to stuttering may be more handicapping than the verbal disfluencies. Most definitions of stuttering do not take this into consideration.
- -Word repetitions
- -Pauses (uh, um, er)
- -Phrase repetitions
- -Incomplete phrases
- -Sentence repetitions
- -Revise, interject, stop, start over
- -Repetitions - sounds, syllable, single syllable words.
- -Prolongations of sounds
- -Blocks-often accompanied with tension (can occur at any level of the speech production mechanism respiratory, laryngeal, articulatory)
- -Abnormal rythm
- -Eye blinks
- -Facial tics, head nodding
Used to get out of a sttuttering moment
Name the conditions that decrease stuttering
- -Change way of speaking (change rate of speech, change pitch, whisper, monotone)
- -Stutters can choral read
- -Play a role
- -Speak to a metronome
- -White noise
- -DAF-delayed auditory feedback.
Name conditions that increase stuttering
- -Saying own name
- -The word "I"
- -Reading alound
- -Waiting to speak (or introduce self to a group)
- -Talking on the phone -terrifying
How do we evaluate stuttering?
- -Case history
- -Observe spontaneous speech in a variety of settings
- -Document the child's dysfluencies
- -Document the child's normal speech
- -Document the child's awareness of dysfluencies, how they attempt to control the problem and the behaviors they use to get out of a block.
- -Analyze the data-the type of block, frequency, severity, and observable tension.
Recommendations to parents
- -Do not tell them how to talk (slow down, take a breath, relax)
- -Do not finish sentences or fill in words when the child has difficulty - do not interrupt
- -Maintain natural eye contact- do not look away, embarrassed, wait patiently
- -Monitor your own speech-you are the model
- -Listen-pay attention to what they say no how they say it
- -Pause at least 1 second before responding
- -enjoy your child